Roma people

Indo-Aryan ethnic group
(Redirected from Romani people)

The Roma are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group found mainly in Europe.[14] In English, they are often called Gypsies. Some Roma, but not all consider "Gypsy" to be a slur. The old word "Chingar" is now rarely used. The Roma are people that originally came via the Silk Road from the Indian subcontinent around the time of the Migration period and settled in Egypt.[15]

Romani people
Flag of the Romani people.svg
Romani flag created in 1933 and accepted at the 1971 World Romani Congress
Map of the Romani Diaspora in the World.svg
Total population
12 million[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Turkey2,750,000
 Romania1,850,000
 Bulgaria750,000[2]
 Spain725,000[3]
 Russia720,000
 Hungary700,000[4]
 Slovakia500,000[5]
 Greece265,000[6]
 Czech Republic250,000[7]
 Italy140,000[8]
 France400,000[9]
 Netherlands37,000[10]
 Belgium30,000[11]
 Germany105,000[12]
 Ireland37,000[13]
Languages
Romani, languages of native regions
Religion
mainly Christianity and Islam, minorities practice Buddhism, Judaism and Bahá'í Faith

GeneticEdit

A DNA study by Indian and Estonian researchers shows that the Roma people's ancestors originate from Chandala (untouchables), Dalit and Shudra community of their ancestral homeland[16] Gene flow from Turks into the Roma people population at the Ottoman Empire , happened through the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans and Byzantine Empire.[17] Much DNA from the People of the Host Countrys where the roma live in flow also into the Romani people trough intermarriages[18][19] Another gene study shows South Indian Tamil people DNA to Romani people,[20] also the Y-DNA H in Roma community if from India.[21] View Romani Men share the R1a1 Y-DNA Haplogroup,[22] who show a Brahmin Ancestry.[23] It is also claimed the Roma people came from Sindh.[24]. Also the J and R Y-DNA from Jats can be found in Roma people[25] The newborns of the Romani people from different countries, as a Indian study shows, have the blue-greyish so called Mongolian spot.[26] Another study show's that many Romani Men from the Zargari tribe in Iran at Qazvin Province are born without a foreskin or a very short foreskin, a rare condition called Aposthia.[27] There are populations of Roma all over Europe, but the largest populations are in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans.

There are various groups of Roma: the Roma of East European birth;[28] the Sinti in Germany and the Manouches in France and Catalonia; the Kaló in Spain, Ciganos in Portugal and Gitans of southern France; the Romanichals of Britain; and the Romanlar in Turkey.[29]

LanguageEdit

The Romani language is now an official language in many European countries under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.[30]

 
Three Finnish Romani women in Helsinki, Finland, during the 1930s.

HistoryEdit

 
A camp with Welsh Romanies near Swansea, 1953. (Title of photo: Gypsies camping.)

The 18th-century idea on the Indian birth of the Roma is based on the likeness between Romani[31] and the languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent. The theory is now supported by genetic evidence. The origins of the Roma were not known until 1763, when a theology student, Stefan Vali, met Indian medical students. He noticed that they were physically similar to the Roma he saw in Hungary. He also noticed that they used similar words.[32]

It is believed that the remnants from the Indo-Greeks , the Atsinganos (Untouchables) left the Indian subcontinent as traders about Indo-Roman trade via the Silk Road through Byzantine Empire to Egypt at the time of the Migration period , where they live for centuries.[33] The Copts named them ⲣⲱⲙⲁ (man or human, also these people there) in Coptic. Around the 12th or the 13th centuries, the Roma reached the Balkans, in the wake of the Crusades. From there, they dispersed in Western Europe.[34]

The first arrivals were well accepted. European people thought they were Christian pilgrims. The local people of Europe were fascinated by their nomadic way of life and their new sciences. A Roma was often recruited as a musician, for Horse training and circus artists, a lion tamer, a Blacksmith, a town crier, a hawker, avgroundskeeper, a dishwasher, a cleaner, a lumberjack, a caretaker, a locksmith, and other low jobs. Roma were crossing Europe aboard large caravans, which contained their luggage.[35]

The Egyptians Act of 1530 expelled Roma people from England, and 10,000 expelled Roma people went to the Ottoman Empire and became Muslims. Their descendants have , call themself until today Egyptians.[36]

During World War II, Roma people suffered from the Nazis' persecution and ethnic cleansing policies. Statistics show that about 500,000 Roms died in Nazi concentration camps.[37]. The Xoraxane Roma from Bosnia, also named white sedentary muslim gypys was not deportated, because Muslims of Bosnia decleared they belong to us[38].

Around the year 1000, an event in northern India, about the time of Muslim invaders, likely triggered their mass exodus. The precise event is still unknown, but the possible reasons include a conflict that resulted in the Roma's persecution, a natural disaster, or even recruitment into a mercenary military. The Roma journeyed towards the Caucasus and China, as well as through the Middle East and Greece towards the Balkans; they covered all corners of today's Central and Western Europe by the end of the 16th century. The Roma typically traveled in patriarchal extended families, consisting of up to hundreds of people. During colonial times, some European countries dealt with the Roma by shipping them overseas, mainly to various Caribbean islands and the present-day United States. In the 1860s, Roma from Britain arrived in the U.S., but the largest wave of Roma arrived in the early 1900s.[39]

CultureEdit

The culture of roma people differs from country to country where there live in and also many differences from group to group. The different Religions also have a big influence of the difference of roma-culture. The Roma left a musical heritage. Guitars and violins are part of their traditions. The Roma influenced musical styles in Europe, such as the belly dance, flamenco, rumba, and jazz.[35]

On 8 April 1971, the Roma nationality was legally recognized in Europe. Since then, 8 April is the Roma national day.[40] Most Romani people practise endogamy and arranged marriage's in very young age. Exogamy, marrying a Gadjo (non-Roma), is seldom. In some groups Cousin marriage is prohibited.[41]

BeliefsEdit

The Roma's religions are mostly Eastern Christianity, Catholicism, and Islam. Baptism by the Dasikane (Christian Roma) and male circumcision by the Xoraxane (Muslim Roma) are practiced. Their ancient religion was Hinduism[42] and Buddhism.[43] Some formally Christian and Muslim Roma have embraced the Noahidic faith. According to Jewish law, non-Jews do not have to convert, but are supposed to obey the Noahide commandments. Persons who submit to the commandments are called children of Noah (B'nei Noach) Noahids.[44] In Hungary there are many former Christian Roma who adopted Buddhism, especially in Hungary.[45] There are also some Christian Roma groups, who taken one of the several evangelicalism faith.[46] Several Muslim Roma belong to one of a Sufism Tarika.[47] The Old Dualist-Religion of the Roma people called Romanipen is a simple belive in Devla-God and Beng-Satan .[48] There is no holy books but Priests called Rashai derived from Rishi, the Priests wife is called Rashani.[49][50] Only Roma or partial roma may be members.[51] Some Roma belonges to Bahá'í Faith and Mormonism[52]

PersecutionsEdit

Even though they have been recognized, they still suffer from discrimination and antiziganism. Some countries still apply discriminatory attitudes towards Roma, especially in workplaces and schools, where they are not accepted.[40]

Their squatting communities also irritate locals.[53] The Romani created an association in 1978 to defend their rights.[54]

ReferencesEdit

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