Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија / Republika Srbija), officially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Србија / Srbija), is a country in Southeastern Europe. The capital city is Belgrade. To the north of Serbia is the country Hungary. To the east of Serbia are the countries Bulgaria and Romania. To the south of Serbia is the country North Macedonia. To the west of Serbia are the countries Montenegro (the country that was once united with Serbia), Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.
Republic of Serbia
"Боже правде" / "Bože pravde"
(English: "God of Justice")
and largest city
|Official minority languages|
|Ethnic groups |
|late 8th century|
• Independent republic
|5 June 2006|
• Including Kosovo
|88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi) (111th)|
• Excluding Kosovo
|77,474 km2 (29,913 sq mi)|
• 2017 estimate
|7,040,272 (excluding Kosovo)  (104th)|
|91.1/km2 (235.9/sq mi) (121th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$112.475 billion (78th)|
• Per capita
|$16,063 (excluding Kosovo) (83rd)|
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$42.378 billion (86th)|
• Per capita
|$6,052 (excluding Kosovo) (88th)|
|HDI (2015)|| 0.776|
high · 66th
|Currency||Serbian dinar (RSD)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||RS|
The oldest form of writing comes from an ancient civilization which inhabited Serbia called the Vinča culture and the symbols are called the Vinča script. Serbia is also home to the earliest known copper smelting sites and the birth of the Copper Age which lead humanity out of the Stone Age and into regular use of metallurgy. The same culture contains the earliest evidence of tin alloy bronze which replaced the much weaker arsenic bronze.
White Serbs, an early Slavic tribe from Northern Europe, came to Northern Greece in the 6th century. By the 8th century they had created the Serbian Principality, a Serbian country, in the Balkans. The Serbs became Christian around the 10th century. For 200 years, the Nemanjić dynasty ruled. They made Serbia a kingdom, built new towns, monasteries, and forts, and made Serbia bigger. In 1371 the Nemanjic Dynasty died out. Serbia became unsafe and local leaders fought each other for control. In 1389 the Ottoman Empire invaded Serbia. They fought against Serbia, Bosnia, the Knights Hospitaller, and the forces of many other local leaders, and won. The Turks fought the Serbs for 70 years until in 1459 the Ottoman Turks conquered Serbia.
Once the Ottomans conquered Serbia, they got rid of the Serbian upper class. Most Serbs worked as farmers on land owned by Turks. They had to pay high taxes to the Turks. Some Serbs were forced to become Muslims. But the Serbs had their own laws in the Ottoman Empire through the millet system. During the 19th century Serbia gradually became independent. During World War I Austria conquered Serbia but lost the bigger war. Serbia joined other Balkan countries to form Yugoslavia.
Serbia is found in the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain. The Danube passes through Serbia. The Šar Mountains of Kosovo form the border with Albania. Over 31% of Serbia is covered by forest. National parks take up 10% of the country's territory. Serbia has 5 national parks and 22 nature reserves.
Serbia is on the Vardar-Morava Flyway of bird migration, so many birds fly across Serbia when going to Africa and back. Golden Eagle, Nutcracker and Coal Tit live high in the mountains. Nightingale, Chaffinch and Greater Spotted Woodpecker live in the forests in the hills. Saker Falcon, Whinchat and Quail live in steppe and fields in the northern lowland part of Serbia which is called Vojvodina. Syrian Woodpecker, Common Redstart and Collared Dove live in the orchards and farmyards. Black Redstart, Kestrel and Common Swift live in the city center. Hooded Crow lives everywhere.
The town of Kikinda is known for Long-eared Owls that form flocks in trees at the city squares. Tourists come from other countries to see them. In winter you can see Pygmy Cormorants in Belgrade, at the rivers Sava and Danube.
Serbia is classed as an upper-middle income economy.
The major processed vegetable crops in Serbia are potatoes, tomatoes and pepper. Serbia is one of the biggest world producers and exporters of raspberries. They are a leading exporter of frozen fruit.
There are five international airports in Serbia: Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport, Niš Constantine the Great Airport, Morava International Airport, Vršac International Airport and Pristina International Airport.
89% of households in Serbia have fixed telephone lines. There are over 9.60 million cell-phones users. This is larger than the number of the total population of Serbia itself by 30%.
Serbia has a total of eight sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list: The Early Medieval capital Stari Ras and the 13th-century monastery Sopoćani, and the 12th-century monastery Studenica, and the endangered Medieval Monuments in Kosovo group, comprising the monasteries of Visoki Dečani, Our Lady of Ljeviš, Gračanica and Patriarchate of Peć (former seat of the Serbian Church, mausoleum of Serbian royalty) and finally the Roman estate of Gamzigrad–Felix Romuliana. There are two literary memorials on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme: The 12th-century Miroslav Gospel, and scientist Nikola Tesla's valuable archive.
The most prominent museum in Serbia is the National Museum of Serbia. It was founded in 1844. It houses a collection of more than 400,000 exhibits, over 5,600 paintings and 8,400 drawings and prints, and includes many foreign masterpiece collections, including Miroslav Gospel.
In the 1990s and the 2000s, many pop music performers rose to fame. Željko Joksimović won second place at the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest. Marija Šerifović won the 2007 Eurovision Song Contest. Serbia was the host of the Eurovision Song Contest 2008.
- "The World Factbook: Serbia". Central Intelligence Agency. 20 June 2014. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- "PBC stats". stat.gov.rs. 2018.
- "Serbia". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
- "Human Development Reports: Gini coefficient". hdr.undp.org. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
- "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2017.
- "THE VINCHA SCRIPT". www.korenine.si.
- "6,500-year old tin-bronze from Serbia - HAEMUS - Center for scientific research and promotion of culture".
- Sima M. Ćirković, SRBI MEĐU EUROPSKIM NARODIMA,(Serbs) 2008. http://www.mo-vrebac-pavlovac.hr/attachments/article/451/Sima%20%C4%86irkovi%C4%87%20SRBI%20ME%C4%90U%20EVROPSKIM%20NARODIMA.pdf #page=26-27
- Fine, John (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest. University of Michigan Press. p. 575. ISBN 9780472082605.
- Runciman 1968, p. 204.
- Kia 2011, p. 115.
- "Dragin obrazlozio predloge zakona u oblasti poljoprivrede". Vlada Srbije. 2005. Archived from the original on 26 October 2012. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "U Srbiji do 2010. godine 10% teritorije nacionalni parkovi". Poslovni Magazin – Business Surfer. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
- "Upper-middle-income economies". The World Bank.
- Marat Terterov (2006), Doing Business with Serbia, p. 169, ISBN 9781905050680
- Caucaso, Osservatorio Balcani e. "Raspberries, Serbia's Red Gold". Osservatorio Balcani e Caucaso.
- Borka Tomic (13 April 2006). "Rebranding Serbia". Invest in Serbia. Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 30 September 2012.
- "Projekat Rastko: Istorija srpske kulture". Rastko.rs. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- "Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac (1856—1914)". Riznicasrpska.net. 28 September 1914. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Runciman, Steven (1968). The Great Church in Captivity: A Study of the Patriarchate of Constantinople from the Eve of the Turkish Conquest to the Greek War of Independence (1. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521071888.
- Kia, Mehrdad (2011). Daily Life in the Ottoman Empire. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313064029.