Croatia

country in southeastern Europe

Croatia (/krˈʃə/ (About this soundlisten) kroh-AY-shə) is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of Central Europe, and Southern Europe, being influenced by powers from both regions at varying points in its history. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. It was one of the republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It became independent in 1991. It joined the European Union on 1 July 2013.

Republic of Croatia

Republika Hrvatska
Anthem: Lijepa naša domovino
Our beautiful homeland

Location of  Croatia  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Croatia  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Zagreb
45°48′N 16°0′E / 45.800°N 16.000°E / 45.800; 16.000
Official languagesCroatian
Official scriptLatin
Ethnic groups
(2001)
89.6% Croats,
4.5% Serbs,
5.9% others and unspecified
Demonym(s)Croat, Croatian
GovernmentParliamentary republic
Zoran Milanović
Andrej Plenković
Gordan Jandroković
Establishment
9th century, independent c. 840
• Kingdom
925
1102
• Joined Habsburg Empire
1 January 1527
• Independence of SHS from Austria–Hungary
29 October 1918
• Co-founded Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia)
4 December 1918
• Yugoslavia becomes Republic
29 November 1943
• Decision on independence
25 June 1991
• Declaration of independence
8 October 1991
Area
• Total
56,594 km2 (21,851 sq mi) (126th)
• Water (%)
1.09
Population
• 2011 census
4,290,612[1]
• Density
75.8/km2 (196.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$80.983 billion (75th)
• Per capita
$18,338 (48th)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$64.160 billion (65th)
• Per capita
$14,529 (44th)
Gini (2008)29[2]
low
HDI (2011)0.796[3]
high · 46th
CurrencyKuna (HRK)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code385
ISO 3166 codeHR
Internet TLD.hr

HistoryEdit

In earliest times, the land now known as Croatia was inhabited by seafaring pirates known to the Romans as the Dalmatian Tribes (Such as the Histri, Liburni and the Delmatae), until the Romans formally conquered and annexed the territory in 9AD, calling it the province of "Dalmatia" named after these tribes. During the more than 400 years of Roman rule, the province of Dalmatia would become Romanized: with the Roman invaders mixing with the natives and their descendants adopting a Roman lifestyle even after the collapse of the Roman state in 476 AD.

In the early seventh century AD, pagan West Slavs named the Croats (where Croatia gets its name) came to live in the former province of Dalmatia when they conquered the people already living there. However, they would soon be influenced by Roman Catholic Christian missionaries who completed the process of Christianization in the early 9th century. From the time of the crowning of Tomislav in 925 as the first King of Croatia, Croatia would become its own independent Catholic kingdom until 1102, when a Hungarian prince inherited the Croatian throne. The Hungarians would rule as Kings of Croatia until the early modern period, when the last Hungarian king of Croatia Louis II was killed at the Battle of Mohacs in 1526 and the kingdom chose the Austrian Archduke Ferdinand as king the next year.

Croatia would remain as a part of the empire of Austria-Hungary under Ferdinand's descendants until 1918. In 1918 it became a part of Kingdom of Slovenians, Croats and Serbs, later named Yugoslavia which was occupied in World War II. After a short war with Italy a fascist dictatorship formed the Independent State of Croatia in 1941, but it was not independent from the control of Nazi Germany (see also Jasenovac concentration camp).

In 1945, Croatia became a part of new Yugoslavia (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) which was non-aligned after breaking connections with Eastern Block. It collapsed in 1991 as initially Slovenia, than Croatia, later other republics claimed higher independence and transition to parliamentary democracies. War with Yugoslavia made a strong impact on society in economic, political and cultural terms. Civil society and media that came out of anti-war struggle in Croatia grew against nationalism, media and civil freedoms, later also corruption.

The country's democratic development around 2000, made it possible for Croatia to finally join Slovenia as only the second republic to become the European Union member on 1 July 2013.[4]

In recent decades Croatia is increasingly popular tourists destination, especially coastal regions of Dalmatia and Istria.

GeographyEdit

 
A map of Croatia

Croatia is in Central and Southeast Europe, bordering Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the south-east, Montenegro to the south-east, the Adriatic Sea to the south-west and Slovenia to the northwest. It lies mostly between latitudes 42° and 47° N and longitudes 13° and 20° E. Part of the territory in the extreme south surrounding Dubrovnik is a practical exclave connected to the rest of the mainland by territorial waters, but separated on land by a short coastline strip belonging to Bosnia and Herzegovina around Neum.[5] Croatia is divided into 21 counties.

Croatia is the 127th largest country in the world.[6] The highest point is the Dinara peak at 1,831 metres (6,007 feet). Thousands of islands are part of Croatia. 48 have people living there year round. The largest islands are Cres and Krk.[6] Major rivers are the Sava, Drava, Kupa and Danube.

There are many deep caves in Croatia. 49 of which are deeper than 250 m (820.21 ft). Croatia's most famous lakes are the Plitvice lakes.

ClimateEdit

Most of Croatia has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate. Average temperature ranges between −3 °C (27 °F) (in January) and 18 °C (64 °F) (in July). The coldest parts of the country are Lika and Gorski Kotar. The warmest are at the Adriatic coast.

BiodiversityEdit

There are several ecoregions in Croatia. The coastline, forests, mountains, and rivers give Croatia diverse flora and fauna. There are more than a thousand endemic species.

Croatia is home to the only known aquatic cave vertebrate—the olm.

There are 444 protected areas of Croatia. Those include eight national parks, two strict reserves, and ten nature parks. The oldest national park in Croatia is the Plitvice Lakes National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

PoliticsEdit

Croatia adopted its constitution in 1990.[7] It declared independence from Yugoslavia on 8 October 1991.

The President of the Republic is the head of state. The President is directly elected to a five-year term. The Constitution limits the President to a maximum of two terms. Zoran Milanović became president in 2020.[8] The Prime Minister of Croatia is the head of government. Since 2016, the prime minister of the government is Andrej Plenković.

Administrative divisionsEdit

County Seat Area (km2) Population at
2011 Census
  Bjelovar-Bilogora Bjelovar 2,652 119,743
  Brod-Posavina Slavonski Brod 2,043 158,559
  Dubrovnik-Neretva Dubrovnik 1,783 122,783
  Istria Pazin 2,820 208,440
  Karlovac Karlovac 3,622 128,749
  Koprivnica-Križevci Koprivnica 1,746 115,582
  Krapina-Zagorje Krapina 1,224 133,064
  Lika-Senj Gospić 5,350 51,022
  Međimurje Čakovec 730 114,414
  Osijek-Baranja Osijek 4,152 304,899
  Požega-Slavonia Požega 1,845 78,031
  Primorje-Gorski Kotar Rijeka 3,582 296,123
  Sisak-Moslavina Sisak 4,463 172,977
  Split-Dalmatia Split 4,534 455,242
  Šibenik-Knin Šibenik 2,939 109,320
  Varaždin Varaždin 1,261 176,046
  Virovitica-Podravina Virovitica 2,068 84,586
  Vukovar-Syrmia Vukovar 2,448 180,117
  Zadar Zadar 3,642 170,398
  Zagreb County Zagreb 3,078 317,642
  City of Zagreb Zagreb 641 792,875

EconomyEdit

 
Salt mine in Ston

Croatia is one of the richest countries of the Balkan Peninsula and of the former Yugoslavia's countries. But Croatia had also the highest cost prices of the whole Central Europe. The average monthly salary/wages in Croatia standing on 739 euro or nearly $1000 USD.[9]

The retirement age for men is 65 years and for women 60 years.[10] The health care enjoys relative strong protection for the country's inhabitants.

EducationEdit

Education is free and required until the child reaches the age of 15. Many choose to continue their studies in high school until the age of 18.[11]

TourismEdit

After the war that devastated the country, Croatia has rebuilt its infrastructure, revitalizing its image as a Mediterranean country with crystal clear waters, medieval cities that mix western and eastern architecture, respect for the environment and traditions with the arrival of tourism. Dubrovnik has become the most characteristic symbol of this new Croatia that is strongly committed to European tourism. It is developing a type of tourism based on sustainability, in which culture, gastronomy and nature coexist with the visitor, offering them the experience of discovering Croatia as part of it.

There are many reasons to visit Croatia. Its six UNESCO World Heritage sites : Dubrovnik's Old Town (undoubtedly one of the most beautiful cities in Europe), the Diocletian's Palace in Split , the historic core of Trogir , the Cathedral of St. James of Sibenik , the Plitvice Lakes National Park , or the Episcopal Ensemble of the Euphrasian Basilica in the Historic Center of Porec (Istria) .

Nature is another attractive source of tourism in Croatia. Its eight National Parks and ten Natural Parks with their varied fauna and flora show all their splendor, with a coastline that winds from the Istria Peninsula to the south of Dalmatia, leaving beautiful coves, beaches, and cliffs. The islands, such as Hvar or Korcula , in Dalmatia or Rab and Losinj in Kvarner Bay , which are sometimes grouped together in archipelagos as interesting as those of Brijuni or Kornati, they host millions of tourists who seek peace or the possibility of practicing nudism, so associated with Croatia, in its crystalline waters. More than a thousand islands and islets that make up the Adriatic Coast, a paradise for those who love sailing and seek to cross the Adriatic by Sailboat .

The variety of the tourist offer in Croatia goes beyond the beautiful cities Dubrovnik, Zagreb or Split.[12]

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011, First Results by Settlements" (PDF) (in Croatian and English) (1441). Zagreb: Croatian Bureau of Statistics. June 2011: 13. ISSN 1332-0297. Retrieved 30 June 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  2. "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved 1 September 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  3. "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. "Croatia to become EU member 1 July 2013". Croatian Times. May 23, 2011. Retrieved November 17, 2011. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  5. "2010 – Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia" (PDF). Croatian Bureau of Statistics. 2010.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 9 December 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  7. "EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; Conservatives Win in Croatia". The New York Times. 9 May 1990. Retrieved 9 December 2016. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  8. "Who is Zoran Milanovic, Croatia's new president?". 2020-01-06. Retrieved 2020-04-09.
  9. "Croatiantimes – Deine Aktien und Trading Zeitung".
  10. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-11-18. Retrieved 2011-11-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. "Regeringens webbplats om mänskliga rättigheter" (PDF). www.manskligarattigheter.se.[permanent dead link]
  12. "12 Beautiful Places to Visit in Croatia". ArrestedWorld. 2019-10-26. Retrieved 2020-04-20.

Other websitesEdit