Temporal range: Pleistocene
|Skeleton in the American Museum of Natural History, Manhattan|
Neanderthal fossils were only found in Europe, Asia Minor and up to central Asia. The first fossil was found in a limestone quarry near Düsseldorf: One of the workers found part of a skeleton, in a valley called Neanderthal. Experts Johann Carl Fuhlrott and Hermann Schaaffhausen said the bones belonged to an older form of modern humans. These bones are known as Neanderthal 1 today.
Recent research suggests Neanderthals became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Earlier research had suggested a later date; the problem is the dating of the archaeological sites where their remains have been found.
Neanderthals used to be classified as a subspecies of modern humans (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis). Now, they are usually classified as a separate human species (Homo neanderthalensis).
Neanderthal remains have been found in most of Europe south of land covered by ice including the south coast of Great Britain. Finds have also been made outside of Europe in the Zagros Mountains and in the Levant.
The size of the Neanderthal brain shows that Neanderthals were probably intelligent. On average, they had larger brains than modern humans. Large brains are something of a physical weakness. That is because they consume lots of energy, make the skull more likely to be damaged, and cause difficulties during birth. These disadvantages may be less than the advantages, for example, better problem-solving, better social co-operation, language and tool-making.
Neanderthal flint tools (for example, hand axes) were more finely made than those of early man. They were much less varied and finely made than the neolithic tools of modern man. Known Neaderthal art is much less complex than contemporary art from H. sapiens.
The Divje Babe fluteEdit
The oldest flute ever discovered may be the so-called Divje Babe flute, found in the Slovenian cave Divje Babe I in 1995. It is about 43,100 years old. It is from a juvenile cave bear femur at the Divje Babe site, near a Mousterian hearth. Archaeologists ask two key questions:
If it is a flute, was it made by Neanderthals? Again, this is not decided. It is on public display as a flute in the National Museum of Slovenia (Narodni Muzej Slovenije) in Ljubljana. The museum's visitor leaflet says that manufacture by Neanderthals "is reliably proven". This is not a general view, and again it is best to describe the idea as "not proven".
Capacity for speechEdit
For a long time, people have wondered whether Neanderthals could talk. Many people believe they could, because the large brain size would be hard to understand if they could not. When an undamaged Neanderthal hyoid bone was discovered, it made people think Neanderthals could talk. That is because, in humans, the hyoid is a support for the voice box. Computer analysis has shown that the Neanderthal hyoid was very similar to human hyoids. Researchers say "our findings are consistent with a capacity for speech in the Neanderthals".
History of discoveriesEdit
In August 1856 the specimen that was to become known as Neanderthal 1 was discovered in the Neander Valley, Germany. The material was found in a limestone quarry near Düsseldorf. A skull cap was first discovered, followed by two femurs, five arm bones, part of the left pelvis, and fragments of a shoulder blade and ribs.
Actually, some remains had been found earlier, but not recognised as a separate species from us. The Engis child from Belgium was the first Neanderthal discovered, in 1829. The second discovered was the Forbes Quarry find from Gibralter in 1848.
Neanderthal men were about 164–168 cm (5.3 ft) tall and averaged 77.6 kg (171 lbs) in weight. Neanderthal women stood about 154 cm (5 ft) tall and averaged 66.4 kg (146 lbs) in weight.
Neanderthal long bones and joints are thicker than ours, and some long bones have a slight curve. Both the thickness and the curve suggest the need for more strength than our species.
This research suggests much more rapid physical development in Neanderthals than in modern human children. The x-ray synchrotron microtomography study of early H. sapiens argues that this difference existed between the two species as far back as 160,000 years before present.
Neanderthals seemed to suffer a high frequency of fractures. These fractures are often healed and show little or no sign of infection, suggesting that injured individuals were cared for during times of incapacitation.
Neanderthals showed a frequency of such injuries comparable to that of modern rodeo professionals, showing frequent contact with large, combative mammals. The fractures suggest they may have hunted by leaping onto their prey and stabbing or even wrestling it to the ground.
The skulls are slightly larger than Homo sapiens, and this implies intelligence and probably the use of language. The skeleton, on the other hand, suggests they tended to solve their problems (such as hunting) more by force than we do.
Neanderthal stone tools are called Mousterian, and are an advance on the Acheulean tools made by earlier species of Man. Homo sapiens stone tools are far more varied still, and suggest that our species relied more on tools than the Neanderthals.
Neanderthals were almost exclusively meat eaters although their diet did include cooked vegetables. They made good tools and lived in complex social groups. Research on their remains has shown that it is possible that they had a spoken language but the nature of any such language is unknown.
There are a number of theories that try to explain why the Neanderthals died out. It has been suggested that they may have been unable to adapt to the changing climate. Alternatively it has been suggested that they were unable to successfully compete with the ancestors of modern humans.
- The word is pronounced without the 'h', and sometimes spelled 'Neandertal'. English pronunciation: /niːˈændərθɑːl/, also with /neɪ-/, and /-tɑːl/
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- Amos, Jonathan 2013. Last-stand Neanderthals queried. BBC News Science/Environment. 
- Ker Than 2006. Scientists decode Neanderthal genes
- Stringer, Chris and Gamble, Clive 1993.In search of the Neanderthals: solving the puzzle of human origins. Thames & Hudson, London, p81–83. ISBN 0-500-27807-5
- The human brain is about 2% of body weight, but uses about 20% of body energy.
- Rodriguez-Vidal, Joaquin et al. 2014. A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar. PNAS 111 (37) 13301–13306.
- Nelson D.E. Radiocarbon dating of bone and charcoal from Divje babe I cave, cited by Morley, p. 47
- Morley, Iain 2003. The evolutionary origins and archaeology of music. Darwin College Research Reports, Cambridge University.  Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine
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- Morley, Iain 2006. Mousterian musicianship? The case of the Divje babe I bone. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 25 (4): 317–333. 
- D'Errico, Francesco et al 1998. A Middle Palaeolithic origin of music? Using cave-bear bone accumulations to assess the Divje Babe I bone 'flute'. Antiquity. 72 (275): 65–79. 
- Neanderthal flute (various contributors; not a refereed journal site)
- Edgar, Blake 1998. Could Neanderthals carry a tune?. California Wild (California Academy of Sciences) 51 (3). 
- The flute from Divje Babe, National Museum of Slovenia, 2005
- Holdermann, Claus-Stephan, and Jordi Serangeli 1999. Die 'Neanderthalerflöte' von Divje-Babe: Eine Revolution in der Musikgeschichte? In German. Musica instrumentalis: Zeitschrift für Organologie 2:147–57.
- Chase, Philip G. & Nowell, April 2002. "Ist der Knochen eines Höhlenbären aus Divje Bebe, Slowenien, eine Flöte des Neandertalers?" [Is a cave bear bone from Divje Babe, Slovenia, a Neanderthal flute?]. In Hickmann, Ellen et al (eds) Studies in Music Archaeology III, Part I. The Archaeology of Sound: Origin and Organisation. Papers from the 2nd Symposium of the International Study Group on Music Archaeology at Monastery Michaelstein, 17-23 September 2000. Rahden: Leidorf. pp. 69–81. ISBN 978-3-89646-640-2.
- Hogenboom, Melissa 2013. Neanderthals could speak like modern humans, study suggests. BBC News Science & Environment.
- D'Anastasio R. et al 2013. Micro-biomechanics of the Kebara 2 hyoid and its implications for speech in Neanderthals. PLoS
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- "Neanderthal". BBC. Retrieved 18 May 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
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- Smith T.M.; et al. (2007). "Rapid dental development in a Middle Paleolithic Belgian Neanderthal". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (51): 20220–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.0707051104. PMC 2154412. PMID 18077342.
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- Smith T.M.; et al. (2007). "Earliest evidence of modern human life history in North African early Homo sapiens". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 104 (15): 6128–33. doi:10.1073/pnas.0700747104. PMC 1828706. PMID 17372199.
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- T.D. Berger and E. Trinkaus (1995). "Patterns of trauma among Neadertals". Journal of Archaeological Science. 22: 841–852. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(95)90013-6. Retrieved 2007-06-28. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Stringer, Chris and Gamble, Clive 1993. In search of the Neanderthals: solving the puzzle of human origins. Thames & Hudson, London. ISBN 0-500-27807-5
- Stringer, Chris and Andrews, Peter 2005. The complete world of human evolution. Thames & Hudson, London.
- Dennis O'Neil 2004. Neandertals retrieved 12/26/2004
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- Archaeology Info
- Greenwych.ca Archived 2007-01-27 at the Wayback Machine - 'Neanderthal Flute: Oldest Musical Instrument's 4 Notes Matches 4 of Do, Re, Mi Scale - evidence of natural foundation to diatonic scale (oldest known musical instrument), Greenwich Publishing
- Neanderthal DNA - 'Neanderthal DNA' Includes Neanderthal mtDNA sequences
- Neanderthal manifactured pitch
- Homo neanderthalensis reconstruction - Electronic articles published by the Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History.
- Scientists decode Neanderthal genes
- Scientists build 'Frankenstein' Neanderthal skeleton
- A Neanderthal's DNA tale Archived 2008-03-06 at the Wayback Machine
- How Neanderthal molar teeth grew