extinct genus of mammals

Mammoths were hairy elephants of the genus Mammuthus. They lived in Europe until 4,500 years ago, and were adapted to cold climate. They were killed off by hunters and climate change.

Temporal range: Pliocene to Holocene:
5 mya – 4,500 years ago
ColumbianMammoth CollegeOfEasternUtah.jpg
Mount of a Columbian mammoth
Scientific classification

They lived in the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs.[1][2] In the Pleistocene, northern Europe was covered with ice and tundra. There were a series of ice ages, which allowed the mammoths to spread across the land.

Mammoths were hunted by early humans, who used spears, and cut them up with hand axes. Their frozen flesh has been analysed for its DNA sequence.[3][4][5]

Related pagesEdit


  1. "Woolly Mammoth ('Mammuthus primigenius)". The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University. Retrieved 2012-03-07.
  2. Guthrie R.D (2004). "Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island". Nature. 429 (6993): 746–9. doi:10.1038/nature02612. PMID 15201907. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  3. Staff (2008). "Scientists sequence woolly-mammoth genome". Penn State Live. Penn State University. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  4. Fox, Maggie (2008). "Mammoth genome sequence may explain extinction". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2008.
  5. Gilbert, Thomas P. (2007). "Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequencing of Mitochondria from Ancient Hair Shafts" (PDF). Science. Washington DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. 317 (5846): pp 1927–1930. doi:10.1126/science.1146971. ISSN 1095-9203. PMID 17901335. Retrieved 25 November 2008. |pages= has extra text (help)

Other websitesEdit

  Media related to Mammuthus at Wikimedia Commons
  Data related to Mammuthus at Wikispecies