Treaty of Berlin (1878)

1878 territorial settlement by the Congress of Berlin following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78

The Treaty of Berlin was a part of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878). In it, the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire wrote the Treaty of San Stefano.

Europe after the Congress of Berlin.

Problems change

Bulgaria change

The most important problem in the treaty was deciding what would happen to the Kingdom of Bulgaria.[1] However, Russia insisted that Bulgaria should not be mentioned in the treaty.[2] The Treaty of San Stefano had created a huge Bulgarian state, which was just what the United Kings and Austria-Hungary did not want since Russia would become too powerful.[3]

Independence change

The treaty stated that Romania, Serbia and Montenegro were to become independent. The Ottoman province of Bosnia-Herzegovina was to be occupied by Austria-Hungary.

The three newly-independent states soon declared themselves to be kingdoms (Romania in 1881, Serbia in 1882 and Montenegro in 1910). Austria-Hungary officially took over Bosnia in 1908, which caused a major European crisis.

References change

  1. Krasner, Stephen D. (1999). Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton University Press. p. 165. ISBN 069100711X.
  2. Krasner, p.165
  3. Crampton, R. J. (2005). A Concise History of Bulgaria. Cambridge University Press. p. 84. ISBN 0521850851.