Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina or Bosnia-Herzegovina (locally: Bosna i Hercegovina/Босна и Херцеговина, most commonly abbreviated as BiH/БиХ) is a country in Southeastern Europe, with an area of 51,197 km2 and 4,600,000 people. Countries around Bosnia and Herzegovina are Croatia, Serbia and Montenegro. The capital is Sarajevo, and other important cities are Banja Luka, Mostar, Bihać, Zenica and Tuzla. The majority religion is Islam and the major branch is Sunni.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosna i Hercegovina
Босна и Херцеговина
Državna himna Bosne i Hercegovine
Државна химна Босне и Херцеговине
("National Anthem of Bosnia and Herzegovina")
and largest city
|Official languages (state level)||None|
|Official languages (entity level)||Bosnian|
|Government||Federal parliamentary republic|
|House of Peoples|
|House of Representatives|
|1 December 1918|
|25 November 1943|
|29 November 1945|
|3 March 1992|
|18 March 1994|
|14 December 1995|
|51,129 km2 (19,741 sq mi) (125th)|
• Water (%)
• 2021 estimate
• 2013 census
|69/km2 (178.7/sq mi)|
|GDP (PPP)||2022 estimate|
|$56.432 billion (114th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2022 estimate|
|$23.006 billion (115th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2015)|| 32.7|
medium · 47th
|HDI (2019)|| 0.780|
high · 73rd
|Currency||Convertible mark (BAM)|
|Time zone||UTC+01 (CET)|
• Summer (DST)
|Date format||d. m. yyyy. (CE)|
|ISO 3166 code||BA|
The first state in Bosnia and Herzegovina was in the Middle Ages. During the Ottoman Empire, it was a very important province in the Balkans and the capital, Sarajevo, had 100,000 people. In the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina and annexed it in 1908. In 1914 the Archduke Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, were assassinated in Sarajevo, leading to World War I. From 1918 until 1992, the country was a part of Yugoslavia. After a 3-year long war, part of the Yugoslav Wars, Bosnia and Herzegovina proclaimed independence as a country consisting mostly of Serbs, Croats and Bosnian Muslims.
|Name of municipality||Population|
Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes. Many of them were famous in the Yugoslav national teams before Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence.
The Bosna basketball club from Sarajevo were European Champions in 1979. The Yugoslav national basketball team medaled in every world championship from 1963 through 1990. The team included Bosnian players such as Dražen Dalipagić and Mirza Delibašić. Bosnia and Herzegovina regularly qualifies for the European Championship in Basketball. Jedinstvo Aida women's basketball club, based in Tuzla, has won the 1989 European Championships in Florence.
Bosnia has many world-class basketball players, notably Mirza Teletović, the first Bosnian in the NBA. Among others are, Elmedin Kikanović, Nihad Đedović, Ognjen Kuzmić, Jusuf Nurkić, Nedžad Sinanović, and Nemanja Mitrović.
The Tuzla-Sinalco karate club from Tuzla has won the most Yugoslav championships, as well as four European Championships and one World Championship.
The Bosnian chess team has been Champion of Yugoslavia seven times. In addition the club ŠK Bosna Sarajevo won four Chess Club Cup : 1994 in Lyon, 1999 in Bugojno, 2000 in Neum, and 2001 in Kallithea Elassonos. Chess grandmaster Borki Predojević has also won European Championships: Under-12 years Litochoro (Greece) in 1999, and Under-14 years Kallithea Elassonos (Greece) in 2001, and in 2003 won World Championship Under-16 years Halkidiki (Greece).
Middle-weight boxer Marijan Beneš has won several Championships of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslav Championships and the European Championship. In 1978 he won the World Title against Elisha Obed from the Bahamas. Another middle-weight boxer, Anton Josipović won the Olympic Gold in Los Angeles, 1984. He also won Yugoslav Championship in 1982, the Championship of the Balkans in 1983, and the Belgrade Trophy in 1985.
Association football is the most popular sport in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It dates from 1903, but its popularity grew significantly after World War I. At the local level, FK Sarajevo (1967 and 1984), Željezničar (1972) have both won the Yugoslav Championship. The former Yugoslav national football team has included a number of Bosnian players, such as Josip Katalinski, Blaž Slišković, Dušan Bajević, Enver Marić, Mehmed Baždarević, Ivica Osim, Safet Sušić, Vahidin Musemić and Mirsad Fazlagić.
Today, the team of Bosnia and Herzegovina has modern footballers like Edin Džeko, Zvjezdan Misimović, Vedad Ibišević, Emir Spahić, Asmir Begović, Miralem Pjanić, Sejad Salihović, Senad Lulić and others. The independent Bosnia and Herzegovina national football team has not qualified for a European or World Championship but has played twice in the play-off stages.
Bosnian national teams have struggled to draft the best national players. Many players born in Bosnia and Herzegovina choose to play for other countries because of their ethnic identification. For example, Nikica Jelavić and Vedran Ćorluka were both born in Bosnia and Herzegovina but play for Croatia. Other internationally famous players from Bosnia and Herzegovina, who have made similar choices, are: Dejan Lovren, Mladen Petrić, Mario Stanić, Neven Subotić, Zlatan Ibrahimović, Marko Marin, Boris Živković, Zlatko Junuzović, Savo Milošević, and Zdravko Kuzmanović.
Bosnian cuisine uses many spices, in moderate quantities. Most dishes are light, as they are cooked in lots of water. The sauces are fully natural, with little more than the natural juices of the vegetables in the dish. Typical ingredients include tomatoes, potatoes, onions, garlic, peppers, cucumbers, carrots, cabbage, mushrooms, spinach, zucchini, dried beans, fresh beans, plums, milk, paprika and cream called Pavlaka. Bosnian cuisine is balanced between Western and Eastern influences. As a result of the Ottoman administration for almost 500 years, Bosnian food is closely related to Turkish, Greek, and other former Ottoman and Mediterranean cuisines. However, because of years of Austrian rule, there are many influences from Central Europe. Typical meat dishes include mostly beef and lamb. Some local specialties are ćevapi, burek, dolma, sarma, pilaf, goulash, ajvar and a whole range of Eastern sweets. Local wines come from Herzegovina where the climate is suitable for growing grapes. Herzegovinian loza (similar to Italian Grappa but less sweet) is very popular. Plum or apple alcohol beverages are made in the north. In the south, distilleries used to produce vast quantities of brandy. Brandy is the base of most alcoholic drinks.
Coffeehouses, where Bosnian coffee is served in džezva with rahat lokum and sugar cubes, are in many places in Sarajevo and every city in the country. Coffee drinking is a favorite Bosnian pastime and part of the culture. Bosnians are believed to be some of the heaviest coffee drinkers in the world.
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