Josip Broz Tito

Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman (1892−1980)

Josip Broz, nicknamed Tito, (May 7, 1892 – May 4, 1980) was the dictatorial leader of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, from 1945 until his death.[1][2] From 1945 to 1953 he was Prime Minister, and from 1953 to 1980 he was the President. His funeral on May 4, 1980, was the largest state funeral in Yugoslavia.[3] Tito was a controversial person, with people having strong and differing views about his leadership.

Josip Broz Tito
Josip Broz Tito uniform portrait.jpg
Josip Broz Tito
2nd President of the Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia
In office
January 14, 1953 – May 4, 1980
Preceded byIvan Ribar
Succeeded byLazar Koliševski
1st Prime Minister of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
In office
November 29, 1945 – January 14, 1953
Succeeded byPetar Stambolić
1st Secretary General of Non-Aligned Movement
In office
September 1, 1961 – October 10, 1964
Succeeded byGamal Abdel Nasser
Personal details
Born(1892-05-07)May 7, 1892
Kumrovec, Croatia, Austria-Hungary
DiedMay 4, 1980(1980-05-04) (aged 87)
Ljubljana, Slovenia, Yugoslavia
Political partyLeague of Communists of Yugoslavia
Spouse(s)Pelagija Broz (married and divorced)
Jovanka Broz (married)

Early lifeEdit

Tito was born in Komrovec, Croatia, where his parents had a small farm.[4] He went to the village elementary school until 1905. In 1907 he was machinist's apprentice in Sisak. In 1910 he joined the union of workers and social-democratic party of Croatia and Slavonia. In 1913 he entered the Austro–Hungarian Army and later was imprisoned for anti-war propaganda. During World War I he was wounded, captured, then imprisoned by Russians.[4] After being set free, he became active in the bolshevik movement. After the October Revolution, he joined the Red Guards (Russia). In 1920 Tito came back to the new nation Yugoslavia and joined the Communist party. This was later renamed Yugoslav Communist League in 1952. Tito (Babo) was the leader of the Communist party from 1937 until his death. In 1921 the Yugoslav communist party was banned. Tito was imprisoned from 1928 until 1933 for being a communist.[4] In 1934 he went back to Soviet Union and he was involved as secret agent in NKVD.

Military chiefEdit

In 1937 Tito came back to Yugoslavia and during World War II, he, totally supported by Anglo-Americans and Soviet armies, organized People's Liberation Army against the Axis powers and in civil war against Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland, Serbian State Guards, Croatian Home Guard, Slovene Home Guard. In 1945, Tito ordered the end of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and created the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia with six republics: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia, and two autonomous provinces in Serbia: Vojvodina in the north, and Kosovo, next to Albania.


Tito with communist dictatorship, dramatically supported by spy ring OZNA and political police UDBA, ruled Yugoslav Republic from 1945 to 1980: he banned all monarchist and liberal parties.[5] He, along with other political personalities in third-world countries, started the Non-Aligned Movement. When he died, the political situation was controlled by the other leaders of the Communist Party. Later, the situation would lead to the country's breakup, and to brutal and bitter wars in Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Slovenia during the 1990s.


On 7 January and again on 11 January 1980, Tito was admitted to the Medical Centre in Ljubljana, the capital city of the SR Slovenia, with circulation problems in his legs. His left leg was amputated soon afterward due to arterial blockages and he died of gangrene at the Medical Centre Ljubljana on 4 May 1980 at 3:05 pm, three days short of his 88th birthday. Many world leaders came to his funeral.[6]

Historical criticismEdit

I am told that Tito murdered more than 400 000 of the opposition in Yugoslavia before he got himself firmly established there as a dictator

Accusations of culpability are related with crimes perpetrated during WWII and during repression by Tito's communist Yugoslav Republic command, such as the massacres of Foibe and Kočevski Rog butchery.[8][9][10][11] Mass graves are evidences of massacres;[12][13] accusations of genocide and ethnic cleansing by historians.[14][15] Accusations of guilt in the Bleiburg massacre, the repression of the Croatian Catholic Church, and the crackdown on the Croatian Spring or MASPOK.[16] Accusation of Vojvodina massacre consists in retaliation against Germans and Hungarians citizen and supposed Chetnik Serbs but some historians consider these incidents also ethnic cleansing against Germans and Hungarians because during World War II, the German minority in occupied Yugoslavia enjoyed a status of superiority over the Yugoslav population.[17] The AVNOJ Presidium issued a decree that ordered the government confiscation of all property of Nazi Germany and its citizens in Yugoslavia, persons of German nationality (regardless of citizenship), and collaborators. The decision acquired the force of law on February 6, 1945.[18] Other accusation of crimes committed against children.[19][20]

Tito's repression involved many of the dictator's old friends such as Milovan Dilas and Vladimir Dedijer, who were both imprisoned but later wrote several books with gross accusations against him;[21] with criticism heaped on Tito's lustful lifestyle: by 1974 he had 32 official residences, one of the ten richest men in the Balkans, a communist who lived like a king.[22] Tito constructed huge personality cult around him.[23]


State funeral of Josip Tito

The funeral of Josip Tito, President of Yugoslavia, was held on 8 May 1980, four days after his death on 4 May. His funeral was visited by many world statesmen, both enemies and allies.[6]

They included four kings, 31 presidents, six princes, 22 prime ministers and 47 ministers of foreign affairs. They came from both sides of the Cold War, from 128 different countries out of 154 UN members at the time.[24]

Tito became ill over the course of 1979. On 7 January and again on 11 January 1980, Tito was admitted to the University Medical Centre in Ljubljana. His left leg was amputated soon afterward due to arterial blockages and he died of gangrene at the Medical Centre Ljubljana on 4 May 1980 at 3:05 pm, three days short of his 88th birthday.

The "Plavi voz" (Blue train, official presidential train) brought his body to the capital Belgrade and he laid in state in the Federal Parliament building until the funeral.

Related pagesEdit


  1. "Josip Broz Tito". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  2. encyclopedia
  3. Vidmar, Josip (1981). Josip Broz Tito – Ilustrirani življenjepis. Rajko Bobot, Miodrag Vartabedijan, Branibor Debeljaković, Živojin Janković, Ksenija Dolinar. Jugoslovenska revija. p. 166.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Marshal Tito Biography". 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2013.
  5. Pavlowitch, Stevan K. (1992). TITO: YUGOSLAVIA'S GREAT DICTATOR, A REASSESSM (9780814206010): STEVAN K. PAVLOWITCH: Books. ISBN 0814206018.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Jimmy Carter (4 May 1980). "Josip Broz Tito Statement on the Death of the President of Yugoslavia". Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 26 April 2010.
  7. Lees, Lorraine M. (2010). Keeping Tito Afloat: The United States, Yugoslavia, and the Cold War, 1945-1960. Penn State Press. ISBN 978-0-271-04063-9.
  8. "European Public Hearing on "Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes"" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-04. Retrieved 2011-11-18. page 156 <<Most of the mass killings were carried out from May to July 1945; among the victims were mostly the “returned” (or “home-captured”) Home guards and prisoners from other Yugoslav provinces. In the following months, up to January 1946 when the Constitution of the Federative People’s Republic of Yugoslavia was passed and OZNA had to hand the camps over to the organs of the Ministry of the Interior, those killings were followed by mass killing of Germans, Italians and Slovenes suspected of collaborationism and anti-communism. Individual secret killings were carried out at later dates as well. The decision to “annihilate” opponents must had been adopted in the closest circles of Yugoslav state leadership, and the order was certainly issued by the Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army Josip Broz - Tito, although it is not known when or in what form.>>
  9. Book and article about Kocevje extermination
  10. in Black Book of Communism, read in chapter Comintern on action
  11. The South Slav Journal. Dositey Obradovich Circle. 1999.
  12. Article
  13. linked dossier
  14. Merrill, Christopher (2001). Only the Nails Remain: Scenes from the Balkan Wars. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7425-1686-1.
  15. Karapandzic, Bor. M. (1980). The bloodiest Yugoslav spring, 1945 Tito's Katyns and Gulags. Carlton Press. ISBN 978-0-8062-1455-9.
  16. Bousfield, Jonathan (2003). Croatia. Rough Guides. p. 105. ISBN 978-1-84353-084-8.
  17. Michael Portmann, Communist Retaliation and Persecution on Yugoslav Territory During and After WWII (1943–50)
  18. Tomasevich 1969, p. 115, 337.
  19. "book's chapter8". Archived from the original on 2011-06-16. Retrieved 2011-06-11.
  20. "whole book". Archived from the original on 2008-12-23. Retrieved 2011-01-28.
  21. N. Y. Times article
  22. N. Y. Times articles
  23. read note number 11
  24. Ridley, Jasper (1996). Tito: A Biography. Constable. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-09-475610-6.


Other websitesEdit

  Media related to Josip Broz Tito at Wikimedia Commons