North Macedonia

sovereign state in southeastern Europe

North Macedonia (Macedonian: Северна Македонија - Severna Makedonija) officially the Republic of North Macedonia (Macedonian: Република Северна Македонија - Republika Severna Makedonija (Albanian: Republika e Maqedonisë së Veriut [8][9]) is a country located on the Balkan peninsula and in Southeastern Europe. North Macedonia borders Serbia to the north, Albania to the west, Greece to the south, and Bulgaria to the east. The country's currency is the Macedonian denar (MKD).

Republic of North Macedonia

Република Северна Македонија
Republika Severna Makedonija
Republika e Maqedonisë së Veriut
Flag of the Republic of North Macedonia
Flag
Coat of arms of the Republic of North Macedonia
Coat of arms
Location of  North Macedonia  (green) on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Location of  North Macedonia  (green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Skopje
42°0′N 21°26′E / 42.000°N 21.433°E / 42.000; 21.433
Official languagesMacedonian•Albanian[1][2]
Regional languages[3]
Ethnic groups
(2002)
Demonym(s)Macedonian
GovernmentParliamentary republic
• President
Stevo Pendarovski
Zoran Zaev
Talat Xhaferi
LegislatureAssembly
Independence 
Area
• Total
25,713 km2 (9,928 sq mi) (148th)
• Water (%)
1.9
Population
• 2011[4] estimate
2,058,539 (146th)
• 2002 census
2,022,547
• Density
80.1/km2 (207.5/sq mi) (122nd)
GDP (PPP)2012 estimate
• Total
$22.147 billion[5]
• Per capita
$10,718[5]
GDP (nominal)2012 estimate
• Total
$10.198 billion[5]
• Per capita
$4,935[5]
Gini (2008)44.2[6]
medium
HDI (2011)Increase 0.728[7]
high · 78th
CurrencyMacedonian denar (MKD)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+389
ISO 3166 codeMK
Internet TLD.mk

The capital and largest city is Skopje, with more than 500,000 residents. It has many smaller cities. Some important ones are Bitola, Prilep, Tetovo, Kumanovo, Ohrid, Veles, Stip, and Strumica.

North Macedonia is often called a land of lakes and mountains. There are more than 50 large lakes and sixteen mountains higher than 2000 meters above sea level.

North Macedonia is a member of the United Nations and World Trade Organization (WTO). It joined NATO on 27 March 2020. Since December 2005, it is a candidate for joining the European Union. [10]

The language spoken by the majority of the population is Macedonian. Albanian is also spoken by the Albanian minority (25%) living in the country. North Macedonia has two official languages, Macedonian and Albanian (since 2019).

HistoryEdit

What is now North Macedonia used to be a state called Socialist Republic of Macedonia in the southeastern part of the country of Yugoslavia. When that country broke up in 1991, North Macedonia became independent.

In past centuries the territory which today is the Republic of North Macedonia was ruled by many different states and empires.

Earliest ResidentsEdit

People have been living in North Macedonia for over 1000 years. The first people that lived in Macedonia were the Neolithic people. They lived in Macedonia from 7000 to 3500 BCE. From 1000 to 1 BCE, Dacians, Thracians, Illyrians, Celts, and Greeks inhabited Northern Macedonia. [11]

Alexander the Great's EmpireEdit

Until the Romans invaded Macedonia, Macedonia was just hundreds of small, independent, city-states. One example of a city state is Illyria. They sometimes merged together, but not often. One city-state that grew over time was the kingdom of Macedon. The kingdom of Macedon is best known for Alexander the Great. He invaded and controlled the Middle East (excluding Arabia),Turkey, Greece, Egypt, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and the Gujarat state of India.[12] However, when Alexander died in 323 BCE, at the age of 33, he lost his vast empire. The empire was divided into 5 countries, Lysimachia (Macedon), Cassander (Northern Greece), the Antigonid Empire (Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Southern Greece), the Ptolemaic Empire (Egypt), and the Seleucid Empire (Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan).[13]

Roman RuleEdit

Towards the end of the 3rd century BCE, the Romans invaded the Balkan peninsula. Illyria was taken over in 9 CE. The North and East of Macedonia were taken over by the Roman Empire in the year 29 CE. They became the Roman province of Moesia. Starting in the 3rd century CE, the borders of Macedonia were being attacked by the Goths, Huns, Bulgars, Avars, and others. In 395 AD, the Roman Empire split in two. They were the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire).

Byzantine RuleEdit

Although, Macedonia was part of the Byzantine Empire, there was little Byzantine influence. In the mid-6th century, Slavic tribes started to settle in Macedonia. From the 7th century to the 13th century, Byzantine Macedonia was governed by local princes and kings, allied with the Byzantine Empire. In the 9th century, the Byzantine Empire brought Christianity to Macedonia. The people who brought Christianity to Macedonia were saints Cyril and Methodius. Their goal was to bring Christianity and the Cyrillic alphabet to Slavs in Europe.

Ottoman RuleEdit

The Ottoman Empire was originally a small city-state in Turkey. The city-state grew, and it invaded Adrianople in 1354. From there, it expanded and took over Turkey. Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, did not get invaded by the Ottomans until 1453. After the Battle of the Maritsa River, the Ottomans conquered southern Serbia and Macedonia. Macedonia was under Ottoman Rule until 1913.[14]

Yugoslav RuleEdit

After the Ottoman Empire dissolved, Macedonia became a part of the newly formed country Yugoslavia. From 1914 to 1941, Yugoslavia was a monarchy. During WW2, the Axis Powers took over Yugoslavia. Macedonia was taken over by Bulgaria. The Axis powers left Yugoslavia after WW2.[15] After WW2, Yugoslavia became a communist state. Josip Broz Tito was the leader of Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980. In 8 September 1991, Macedonia became an independent state.[16]

Present DayEdit

During the Yugoslav Wars, Macedonia was mostly peaceful. However in 2001, fighting broke out between ethnic Albanians and Macedonians. The fighting ended with the Ohrid Agreement.

Greece and the Republic of North Macedonia were arguing over the name Macedonia. The United Nations calls the Republic of North Macedonia, "the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (FYROM) (Macedonian: Поранешна Југословенска Република Македонија - ПЈРМ - Poranešna Jugoslovenska Republika Makedonija -PJRM). The north and northeast part of Greece has been called Macedonia for ages and officially since 1912, just like Kent, the southeast county of England, has been called Kent for a long time. 'FYROM' is also used by NATO and many other international organisations. But, many countries now call the country 'Republic of Macedonia'. The United Kingdom, for example, uses Republic of Macedonia in the diplomatic list.[17]

On 17 June 2018, North Macedonia and Greece agreed to the Prespa agreement[18][19] which would see the country change its name to the Republic of North Macedonia. The government started completing the constitutional change needed to change the country's name, which was completed on 12 February 2019.

PoliticsEdit

Macedonia is a democratic country with a parliament.

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "The Macedonian language, written using its Cyrillic alphabet, is the official language in the Republic of Macedonia.", Article 7 of the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia
  2. "Languages Law passed in Parliament". macedoniaonline.eu. 26 July 2008. Retrieved 27 July 2008. Using the Badenter principles, the Parliament had passed the use of languages law that will touch all ethnicities in Macedonia. The law doesn't allow for use of Albanian or any other minority language as a second official language on Macedonia's territory.
  3. "Regional Languages of Macedonia". CIA World Factbook. 2002 census. Check date values in: |year= (help)
  4. Population from the State Statistical Office.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Report for Selected Country". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  6. "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing :: Distribution of family income – Gini index". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  7. "Human Development Report 2010" (PDF). United Nations. 2010. Retrieved 5 November 2010.
  8. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2019/feb/12/nato-flag-raised-ahead-of-north-macedonias-prospective-accession
  9. http://www.ekathimerini.com/237628/article/ekathimerini/news/fyrom-is-officially-renamed-north-macedonia
  10. https://www.rferl.org/a/after-years-of-delay-north-macedonia-albania-get-ok-to-begin-eu-accession-talks/30507053.html
  11. "North Macedonia - History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  12. "Macedonia (ancient kingdom)". Wikipedia. 2020-11-29.
  13. "Alexander the Great | Biography, Empire, Death, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  14. "North Macedonia - History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  15. "World War II in Yugoslavia". Wikipedia. 2020-12-02.
  16. "Yugoslavia | History, Map, Flag, Breakup, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-12-02.
  17. "Foreign Embassies in the UK". Cite has empty unknown parameter: |1= (help)
  18. "Greece and Macedonia sign agreement on name change,| Macedonia News | Al Jazeera". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
  19. Kitsantonis, Niki (2018-06-17). "Macedonia and Greece Sign Historic Deal on Name Change". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-12-29.