country in Northwestern Europe

Luxembourg (officially called the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg, French: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg) is a landlocked country in Western Europe.

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Coat of arms of Luxembourg
Coat of arms
Motto: "Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn"  (Luxembourgish)
"We want to remain what we are"
Anthem: Ons Heemecht
"Our Homeland"

Location of  Luxembourg  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Luxembourg  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

and largest city
49°36′N 6°7′E / 49.600°N 6.117°E / 49.600; 6.117
Official languagesLuxembourgish
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy under a military junta
Henri (List)
Luc Frieden (List)
LegislatureChamber of Deputies
9 June 1815
19 April 1839
11 May 1867
• End of personal union
23 November 1890
• Total
2,586.4 km2 (998.6 sq mi) (175th)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
660,809[1] (170th)
• 2021 census
• Density
255/km2 (660.4/sq mi) (67th)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$41.221 billion[2] (94th)
• Per capita
$80,119[2] (2nd)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$58.412 billion[2] (69th)
• Per capita
$113,533[2] (1st)
HDI (2011)Increase 0.867[3]
very high · 25th
CurrencyEuro ()2 (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code352
ISO 3166 codeLU
Internet TLD.lu3
  1. Not the same as the Het Wilhelmus of the Netherlands.
  2. Before 1999: Luxembourgish franc.
  3. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

It is a small country by land area. In 2023, its population was 660,809, making it one of Europe's most densely populated countries.

It was one of the first countries in the European Union. It is also a member of the Benelux. The countries next to Luxembourg are Belgium, Germany, and France. The main language is Luxembourgish but French and German is also spoken there.

History timeline




Luxembourg is a parliamentary democracy lead by a constitutional monarch. Under the constitution of 1868, executive power is in the hands of the Governor and the cabinet, which consists of several other ministers.



Luxembourg has a continental climate.

The highest temperature ever recorded in Luxembourg was 40.8 °C (105.4 °F), on 25 July 2019 in Steinsel.[5]

The lowest temperature ever recorded in Luxembourg was −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) on 2 February 1956 in Wiltz.

Top 5 warmest days

Rank Temperature Date Location
1. 40.8 °C (105.4 °F) 25 July 2019 Steinsel
2. 40.6 °C (105.1 °F) 12 August 2003 Schengen
3. 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) 19 July 2022 Esch-sur-Alzette
4. 39.4 °C (102.9 °F) 8 August 2003 Remich
5. 39.0 °C (102.2 °F) 9 August 2020 Esch-sur-Alzette

Districts, cantons, and communes

The cantons of Luxembourg

Luxembourg is divided into twelve cantons. These twelve cantons are divided into 102 communes (towns or cities), which have local governments.



Until 2015, Luxembourg's cantons were sorted into three districts. These are not to be confused with the electoral districts of Luxembourg, which are used to elect members of the parliament.

The districts were:

  1. Diekirch
  2. Grevenmacher
  3. Luxembourg


  1. [0=Th%C3%A8mes%2C1%7CPopulation%20et%20emploi%23B%23%7CEtat%20de%20la%20population%23B1%23&pg=0&fc=Th%C3%A8mes&df[ds]=ds-release&df[id]=DF_B1102&df[ag]=LU1&df[vs]=1.0&pd=2015%2C2023&dq=A..&ly[rw]=AGE&ly[cl]=SEX&lo=1 "Population par âge et sexe au 1er janvier"] Archived 2023-04-18 at the Wayback Machine, Le Portail des statistiques: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 18 April 2023. (in French) Retrieved 26 April 2023.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Luxembourg". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 25 November 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  3. "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  4. Abnett, Kate (29 February 2020). "Luxembourg becomes first country to make public transport free". Reuters. Luxembourg. Archived from the original on 20 November 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
  5. "Luxembourg scorches on hottest day ever". Archived from the original on 2023-01-18. Retrieved 2023-02-12.