Luxembourg is a landlocked country in Western Europe. Its official name is the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg, French: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, German: Großherzogtum Luxemburg). It is a small country by land area. It was one of the first countries in the European Union. It is also a member of the Benelux. The countries next to Luxembourg are Belgium, Germany, and France. In 2023, its population was 660,809, making it one of Europe's most densely populated countries.
Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
|Motto: "Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn" (Luxembourgish)|
"We want to remain what we are"
|Anthem: Ons Heemecht|
and largest city
49°36′N 6°7′E / 49.600°N 6.117°E
|Government||Unitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy|
|Xavier Bettel (List)|
|Legislature||Chamber of Deputies|
• From French empire (Treaty of Paris)
|9 June 1815|
|19 April 1839|
|11 May 1867|
• End of personal union
|23 November 1890|
|2,586.4 km2 (998.6 sq mi) (175th)|
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
• 2021 census
|255/km2 (660.4/sq mi) (67th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2011 estimate|
|$41.221 billion (94th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2011 estimate|
|$58.412 billion (69th)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2011)|| 0.867|
very high · 25th
|Currency||Euro (€)2 (EUR)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||LU|
- 963 - Luxembourg was founded. Sigefroid, Count of Ardennes, came to own the ruins of an old Roman fort called "Castellum Lucilinburhuc" ("Little Castle") from the monks of the Abbey of St. Maximin in Trier.
- 1354 - The emperor Charles IV made Luxembourg a duchy.
- 1437 - There were no people in the ruling family alive. The castle was given to the Habsburgs.
- 1443 - Luxembourg was captured by Philip of Burgundy.
- 1482 - Mary of Burgundy died. Luxembourg was ruled by the Habsburgs again.
- 1795 - After the French revolution Luxembourg was taken over by France. It became a département of France.
- 1815 - Luxembourg became a grand duchy. It was ruled by the king of the Netherlands.
- 1815-1866 - Luxembourg became a member of the German Confederation.
- 1890 - After the death of William III, Luxembourg passed to the House of Nassau-Weilburg.
- 1914-1918 - Luxembourg was conquered by Germany during World War I.
- 1940 - The Germans returned during World War II, and in 1942 Luxembourg became part of the Third Reich.
- 1944 - Luxembourg became independent in September because the United States Army arrived.
- 1945 - Luxembourg joined the United Nations
- 1957 - Luxembourg became one of the first six members of the European Economic Community. That is now called the European Union.
- 2020 - Luxembourg became the first country in the world to make all public transport free to use.
Luxembourg is a parliamentary democracy lead by a constitutional monarch. Under the constitution of 1868, executive power is in the hands of the Governor and the cabinet, which consists of several other ministers.
Luxembourg has a continental climate.
The highest temperature ever recorded in Luxembourg was 40.8 °C (105.4 °F), on 25 July 2019 in Steinsel.
The lowest temperature ever recorded in Luxembourg was −24.6 °C (−12.3 °F) on 2 February 1956 in Wiltz.
Top 5 warmest daysEdit
|1.||40.8 °C (105.4 °F)||25 July 2019||Steinsel|
|2.||40.6 °C (105.1 °F)||12 August 2003||Schengen|
|3.||40.5 °C (104.9 °F)||19 July 2022||Esch-sur-Alzette|
|4.||39.4 °C (102.9 °F)||8 August 2003||Remich|
|5.||39.0 °C (102.2 °F)||9 August 2020||Esch-sur-Alzette|
Districts, cantons, and communesEdit
Luxembourg is divided into 3 districts, which are further divided into 12 cantons and then 102 communes. Twelve of the communes have city status, of which the city of Luxembourg is the largest.
The districts are
- ↑ [0=Th%C3%A8mes%2C1%7CPopulation%20et%20emploi%23B%23%7CEtat%20de%20la%20population%23B1%23&pg=0&fc=Th%C3%A8mes&df[ds]=ds-release&df[id]=DF_B1102&df[ag]=LU1&df[vs]=1.0&pd=2015%2C2023&dq=A..&ly[rw]=AGE&ly[cl]=SEX&lo=1 "Population par âge et sexe au 1er janvier"], Le Portail des statistiques: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 18 April 2023. (in French) Retrieved 26 April 2023.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Luxembourg". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- ↑ "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- ↑ Abnett, Kate (29 February 2020). "Luxembourg becomes first country to make public transport free". Reuters. Luxembourg. Retrieved 10 April 2020.
- ↑ https://www.luxtimes.lu/en/luxembourg/luxembourg-scorches-on-hottest-day-ever-602d6a88de135b9236ae53fa