country in Southeast Asia

Thailand (/ˈtlænd/ TY-land or /ˈtlənd/ TY-lənd;[8] Thai: ประเทศไทย, RTGS: Prathet Thai), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย, RTGS: Ratcha Anachak Thai; IPA: [râːt.tɕʰā ʔāːnāːtɕàk tʰāj] (audio speaker iconlisten)), is a country in Southeast Asia. Its neighbours are Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, and Myanmar. Its name was Siam until June 1939[9] and between 1945 and May 11 1949. The word Thai (ไทย) comes from the ethnic group in the center of Thailand.

Kingdom of Thailand
  • ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai)
  • Ratcha-anachak Thai
  • ประเทศไทย (Thai)
  • Prathet Thai
Emblem of Thailand
Anthem: Phleng Chat Thai
(English: "Thai National Anthem")

Royal anthem: Sansoen Phra Barami
(English: "Glorify His prestige")
Location of  Thailand  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Thailand  (green)

in ASEAN  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

and largest city
Bangkok (Thai: Krung Thep)1
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750°N 100.483°E / 13.750; 100.483
Official languagesThai
Other languagesList
  • English
  • Arabic
  • Burmese
  • Standard Chinese
  • Hindi
  • French
  • German
  • Italian
  • Japanese
  • Khmer
  • Korean
  • Lao
  • Filipino
  • Indonesian
  • Malay
  • Portuguese
  • Punjabi
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Tamil
  • Telugu
  • Urdu
  • Vietnamese
Official scriptsThai alphabet
Ethnic groups
Thai (75%)

 • Northeastern Thai (Isan) (34.2%)
 • Central Thai (33.7%)
 • Southern Thai (13.3%)
Chinese (14%)
Khmer (4%)
Malay (4%)
Tamil (3%)

Other (1%)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Maha Vajiralongkorn
Srettha Thavisin
LegislatureNational Assembly
House of Representatives
6 April 1782
24 June 1932
24 August 2007
• Total
513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) (51st)
• Water (%)
0.4 (2,230 km2)
• 2011 estimate
66,720,1532[3] (20th)
• 2010 census
• Density
132.1/km2 (342.1/sq mi) (88th)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
• Total
$616.783 billion[5] (24th)
• Per capita
$9,598[5] (84th)
GDP (nominal)2011 estimate
• Total
$332.47 billion[5] (30th)
• Per capita
$5,174[5] (89th)
Gini (2009)42.5[6]
HDI (2011)Increase 0.682[7]
medium · 103rd
CurrencyBaht (฿) (THB)
Time zoneUTC+7
Driving sideleft
Calling code+66
ISO 3166 codeTH
Internet, .ไทย
  1. ^ Thai name: กรุงเทพมหานคร Krung Thep Maha Nakhon or Krung Thep. The full name is กรุงเทพมหานคร อมรรัตนโกสินทร์ มหินทรายุทธยา มหาดิลกภพ นพรัตนราชธานีบุรีรมย์ อุดมราชนิเวศน์มหาสถาน อมรพิมานอวตารสถิต สักกะทัตติยะวิษณุกรรมประสิทธิ์ Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit.
  2. ^ According to the Department of Provincial Administration's official register, not taking into account unregistered citizens and immigrants.

Thailand is a constitutional monarchy. It has a King as a head of state, who is Vajiralongkorn at the moment.

Most people here (95 percent) follow the philosophy called Buddhism. Smaller number of people (4.4%), mostly to the south, follow Islam. Other religions in Thailand are Christianity, Hinduism, and Sikhism. Some Muslims in the south have begun fighting the government because they want to be more independent.

Population: the total fertility rate was 1.3 (in 2019).[10]



A Buddhist kingdom named Sukhothai was founded here in 1238.

A century later, a bigger kingdom named Ayuthaya appeared south of Sukhothai. Later Sukhothai became a part of Ayuthaya. Ayuthaya existed for more than 400 years before its fall by the attack of a Burmese kingdom.

A soldier of Chinese origin then founded a new capital city at Thonburi, and became King Tāksin.

The current era, Rattanakosin, started on founding Bangkok as the capital city by King Rama I of Chakri Dynasty.

Before 1932, Thailand was an absolute monarchy. On June 24, 1932, a group of people did a coup and changed Thailand to a constitutional monarchy. It was not until 1973 that Thai people voted for a Prime Minister in an election. There were coups both before and after this year.

In 1951, there was a failed coup - the Manhattan Rebellion.[11] On September 19, 2006, the army did a coup d'état and took control from Thaksin Shinawatra's government.

In May 2014, a new military coup d'état removed another government.

In October 2016, Rama X become the new king.

Between 1932 and 2014, Thailand had 12 coup d'etats.



Thailand is made up of 76 provinces (จังหวัด, changwat), put into 5 groups. There are 2 specially governed districts: the capital Bangkok and Pattaya. The 76 provinces including Bangkok are as follows:

Thailand provinces
Map of Thailand


  1. Ang Thong
  2. Bangkok (Krung Thep Maha Nakhon), Special Governed District of
  3. Chai Nat
  4. Kanchanaburi
  5. Lopburi
  6. Nakhon Nayok
  7. Nakhon Pathom
  8. Nonthaburi
  9. Pathum Thani
  10. Phetchaburi
  11. Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya
  12. Prachuap Khiri Khan
  13. Ratchaburi
  14. Samut Prakan
  15. Samut Sakhon
  16. Samut Songkhram
  17. Saraburi
  18. Sing Buri
  19. Suphan Buri
  1. Chachoengsao
  2. Chanthaburi
  3. Chonburi
  4. Prachinburi
  5. Rayong
  6. Sa Kaeo
  7. Trat
  1. Chiang Mai
  2. Chiang Rai
  3. Kamphaeng Phet
  4. Lampang
  5. Lamphun
  6. Mae Hong Son
  7. Nakhon Sawan
  8. Nan
  9. Phayao
  10. Phetchabun
  11. Phichit
  12. Phitsanulok
  13. Phrae
  14. Sukhothai
  15. Tak
  16. Uthai Thani
  17. Uttaradit
Wat Phra Sing, Chiang Mai Province

Northeast (Isan)

  1. Amnat Charoen
  2. Bueng Kan
  3. Buri Ram
  4. Chaiyaphum
  5. Kalasin
  6. Khon Kaen
  7. Loei
  8. Maha Sarakham
  9. Mukdahan
  10. Nakhon Phanom
  11. Nakhon Ratchasima
  12. Nong Bua Lamphu
  13. Nong Khai
  14. Roi Et
  15. Sakon Nakhon
  16. Si Sa Ket
  17. Surin
  18. Ubon Ratchathani
  19. Udon Thani
  20. Yasothon
  1. Chumphon
  2. Krabi
  3. Nakhon Si Thammarat
  4. Narathiwat
  5. Pattani
  6. Phang Nga
  7. Phatthalung
  8. Phuket
  9. Ranong
  10. Satun
  11. Songkhla
  12. Surat Thani
  13. Trang
  14. Yala

NOTE: In italics [1], that province is about the Greater Bangkok sub-region; in italics [2], that province is about the West sub-region.



The economy of Thailand "is based on trade and investment in the agricultural and tourism sectors, according to media.[12] In 2022, the country with investors that invested the most in Thailand, was Japan; Chinese investors had the second place.[12]

Industry had a contribution to the GDP, of 43.9 percent (in 2007), and 14 percent of the workforce are in that sector (of the economy). Within that sector, manufacturing was the biggest part, and it had a contribution (to the GDP), with 34.5 (in 2004).

In 2014, Credit Suisse reported that Thailand was the world's third most unequal country, behind Russia and India.[13] The top 10% richest held 79% of the country's assets.[13] The top 1% held 58% of the assets.[13]

Other information


About the law becoming more strict about drug use: Authorities have said that from the first day of 2025, cannabis will be outlawed (again).[14] However, media said (July 2024) that new rules about criminalising cannabis (again), still have to [get approval from, or] "clear the Narcotics Control Board;[15]




  1. Thailand, CIA World Factbook.
  2. West, Barbara A. (2009), Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Facts on File, p. 794
  3. . 16 July 2011 Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-16. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. National Statistics Office. "100th anniversary of population censuses in Thailand: Population and housing census 2010: 11th census of Thailand" (in Thai), online accessible at: [1] Archived 2012-07-12 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved on 30 January 2012.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Report for Thailand". World Economic Outlook Database. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  6. "Human Development Report". UNDP. 2009. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  7. "Human Development Report 2011 – Human development statistical annex" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 127–130. Retrieved 2 November 2011.
  8. "Merriam-Webster Online". 25 April 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  9. Thailand (Siam) History, CSMngt-Thai.
  10. Retrieved 15 Februar 2022
  11. Limited, Bangkok Post Public Company. "Shifting Thai alliances in the 21st century". Bangkok Post.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2023-06-26
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 พงศ์พิพัฒน์ บัญชานนท์ (18 June 2017). ยิ่งนานยิ่งถ่าง ช่องว่างทางรายได้ ปัญหาใหญ่ที่รอ คสช. แก้. BBC Thailand (in Thai). Archived from the original on 14 May 2018. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
  14. Bangkok Post. Retrieved 2024-07-06
  15. Retrieved 2024-07-23

Further reading


Other websites