religion originating in the Punjab region

Sikhism (/ˈsɪkɪzəm/), also known as Sikhi (Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖੀ Sikkhī, [ˈsɪkʰiː], from ਸਿੱਖ, Sikh, 'disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner'),[lower-roman 1] is a Dharmic religion[3] (categorized as an ethnic religion by some scholars) and philosophy[4] that originated in the Panjab region of the Indian subcontinent,[lower-roman 2][5] around the end of the 15th century CE.[6][7][8][9][10][11] It is the most recently founded major organized faith and stands at fifth-largest worldwide,[12][13][14] with about 45 million adherents (known as Sikhs).[15][16]

The Golden Temple in Amritsar, Punjab, India, the holiest site of the Sikh religion
TypeUniversal religion
ScriptureGuru Granth Sahib
Dasam Granth
Sarbloh Granth
TheologyMonotheism, Pantheism, Panentheism
RegionPanjab region (15%) : Predominant religion in Punjab, India (60%) and widespread worldwide as minorities
LanguageSant Bhasha (sacred) , Panjabi (Gurmukhi script)[1]
Punjabi (Gurmukhi)
Khalsa bole[2]
HeadquartersAkal Takht , Amritsar , Panjab
FounderGuru Nanak
Origin15th century
Gurdwara Janam Asthan , Kartarpur Sahib , Panjab
Number of followers45 million (referred to as "Sikhs")

Sikhism developed from the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the faith's first guru,[17] and the nine Sikh gurus who succeeded him. The tenth guru, Gobind Singh (1666–1708), named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, bringing to a close the line of human gurus and establishing the scripture as the 11th and last eternally living guru, a religious spiritual/life guide for Sikhs.[18][19][20] Guru Nanak taught that living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" is above metaphysical truth, and that the ideal man "establishes union with God, knows His Will, and carries out that Will".[21] Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru (1606–1644), established the concept of mutual co-existence of the miri ('political'/'temporal') and piri ('spiritual') realms.[22]

The Sikh scripture opens with the Mul Mantar or alternatively spelled "Mool Mantar" (ਮੂਲ ਮੰਤਰ), fundamental prayer about ik onkar (, 'One God').[23][24] The core beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation in the name of the one creator; divine unity and equality of all humankind; engaging in seva ('selfless service'); striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all; and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life.[25][26][27] Following this standard, Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth.[lower-roman 3][28] Sikhism emphasizes simran (ਸਿਮਰਨ, meditation and remembrance of the teachings of Gurus),[29] which can be expressed musically through kirtan, or internally through naam japna ('meditation on His name') as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (i.e. lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego).[30]

The religion developed and evolved in times of religious persecution, gaining converts from both Hinduism and Islam.[31] Mughal rulers of India tortured and executed two of the Sikh gurus—Guru Arjan (1563–1605) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621–1675)—after they refused to convert to Islam.[32][33][34][35][36] The persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa by Guru Gobind Singh in 1699 as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion,[32][37] with members expressing the qualities of a Sant-Sipāhī ('saint-soldier').[38][39]

Beliefs Edit

Sikh people

Guru Granth Sahib is not just a holy book for Sikhs, it is respected and treated as a living being as it is officially The Eternal Guru (Teachers). Shri Guru Granth Sahib is not written by one human but by saints from all across societies and religions. It is a universal teacher for all religions giving the message of one God and respect to all humans of every religion.

Some basic beliefs Edit

  • There is nothing that is beyond or outside the one God. So, therefore there is nothing being created or destroyed, as the creation and destruction are still only part of the one.
  • The goal of life is to focus on being at one with God. This is attainable by meditation, prayer, and being in the company of others who share a similar goal.

God Edit

Sikhism teaches that God lasts forever, cannot be seen, and has no body. Therefore, God has no gender. It is taught that God created the universe and keeps it running. God is considered to be infinite, Alpha and Omega, no beginning and no end. Sikhs worship God, and meditate on God’s name through intense (passionate) repetition. They believe everything is a part of God and God is a part of everything. Good, bad, neutral are not applicable to God and are meant only for human beings, as Sikh philosophy indicates that human beings are born innately good. Since God created the world he could destroy it whenever he wants.

Salvation Edit

Followers are all trying to reach salvation, meaning they are trying to break the process of rebirth and become one with God. The thing that is keeping people from reaching union is bad karma. Bad karma is taught to be caused by pride, anger, greed, attachment and lust. Sikhs try to stay away from these things. Sikhs also believe that a piece of God resides within everything in the world. Once an individual discovers the God within and stops searching else then can he reach salvation.

Temples Edit

A Sikh temple is called a Gurdwara (meaning "the house of Guru"). It is the place of worship in the Sikh religion. Birth, death, baptism and marriage ceremonies are held in the temple. There are four doors for all religions. When a person enters the temple, their head must be covered. There are no chairs in the temple so people sit on the floor.

The temple also serves as a kitchen. The kitchen is where festival food is donated, prepared and cooked by volunteers. All the food that has been made there is shared with all the community who visit the temple on that day. The meal is vegetarian and is called the Langar.

The Golden Temple in Amritsar is the most famous temple in all of the Sikh faith. It is covered in gold.

In a Gurdwara, no special place or seat may be reserved or set aside for any dignitary, as all are considered equals. The service consists of singing of the liturgy, as well as the exposition of Sikh history, tradition, and theology. In traditional Indian society, people of high and low caste were rigidly segregated. To combat this social problem, the Sikh community kitchen, or langar, requires everyone to sit side by side and eat together, thereby teaching the concept of equality by shattering all barriers of caste and class. Every major city in the United States and Canada has Sikh gurdwaras and they are open to all Sikh people go to Gurdwara to worship God.

Vaisakhi Edit

Vaisakhi is an important festival celebrated by Sikhs. Vaisakhi is also known as Basaki. It is the harvest festival in the Punjab region. Vaisakhi is celebrated on the first day of the Basak month, in the Sikh calendar.

Gurus and religious authority Edit

The term guru comes from the Sanskrit gurū, which means teacher, guide, or mentor. The traditions and philosophy of Sikhism were made by ten gurus from 1469 to 1708. Each guru added to and reinforced the message taught by the previous one. This resulted in the creation of the Sikh religion.

And the eternal Guru is the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, which is a not just a book but contains the writings of each Guru.

In addition to the above, Sikhs also believe in fifteen bhagats or saints, including ones from other creeds, whose words and deeds have been adopted into Sikhism by the great ten Gurus. Most notable of these bhagats is the Punjabi Sufi saint, Hazrat Baba Farfood

Food Banks

Sikhs believe in equality therefore they have food banks to go and get food for free.

Extra facts

It is said that Sikhs have to give 10% of their earnings to charity.

Sikhs believe in equality therefore the are all equal in money. Nobody is poor and nobody is rich. There is a Sikh alphabet. Sikhism, religion and philosophy founded in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent in the late 15th century. The Sikhs call their faith Gurmat (Punjabi: “the Way of the Guru”). According to Sikh tradition, Sikhism was established by Guru Nanak (1469–1539) and subsequently led by a succession of nine other Gurus.

Time in chronological order Name Date of birth Guruship on Date of death Age at death Father Mother
1 Guru Nanak Dev Ji 1469 22 September 1539 70 Mehta Kalu Mata Tripta
2 Guru Angad Dev Ji 31 March 1504 7 September 1539 29 March 1552 48 Baba Pheru Mata Ramo
3 Guru Amar Das Ji 5 May 1479 26 March 1552 1 September 1574 95 Tej Bhan Bhalla Mata Bakht
4 Guru Ram Das Ji 24 September 1534 1 September 1574 1 September 1581 46 Baba Hari Das Mata Daya Vati
5 Guru Arjan Dev Ji 15 April 1563 1 September 1581 30 May 1606 43 Rām Dās Mata Bhani
6 Guru Har Gobind Sahib Ji 19 June 1595 25 May 1606 28 February 1644 48 Arjun Dēv Mata Ganga
7 Guru Har Rai Ji 16 January 1630 3 March 1644 6 October 1661 31 Baba Gurditta Mata Nihal
8 Guru Har Krishan Ji 7 July 1656 6 October 1661 30 March 1664 7 Hari Rā'i Mata Krishan
9 Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji 1 April 1621 20 March 1665 11 November 1675 54 Hari Gōbind Mata Nanki
10 Guru Gobind Singh Ji 22 December 1666 11 November 1675 7 October 1708 41 Tēġ Bahādur Mata Gujri
11 Guru Granth Sahib Ji n/a 7 October 1708 n/a n/a

5 Ks Edit

Khalsa is the military community of Sikhism. A Sikh must follow the 5 Ks:

  1. Having unshorn/uncut hair. This is called a Kesh. Whether male or female, a person is required to keep their Kesh covered. People usually cover their Kesh with a turban, or a scarf (Chunni).
  2. A wooden comb in their hair. This is called a Kanga. This symbolizes cleanliness which is an important part of Sikhism.
  3. A steel bangle. This is for protection and physical reminder that a one is bound to the Guru. This is called a Kara. This is to show that God has no beginning and no end.
  4. Cotton underwear that has to be always worn. This is called a Kachera. It is a reminder to stay away from lust and attachment.
  5. A sword. This is worn to defend one's faith and protect the weak. This is called Kirpan. It is only to be used in self-defense. Many of these are now welded shut.

Notes Edit

  1. Sikhism (commonly known as Sikhī) originated from the word Sikh, which comes from the Sanskrit root śiṣya meaning "disciple", or śikṣa meaning "instruction". Singh, Khushwant. 2006. The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-567747-8. p. 15.Kosh, Gur Shabad Ratnakar Mahan.
  2. "Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikh originated in India."Moreno, Luis; Colino, César (2010). Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries. McGill Queen University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-7735-9087-8.
  3. "Sikhism rejects the view that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly regarding Absolute Truth. Sikhism rejects the practice of converting people to other religious traditions." Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2008). Sikhism. London: Kuperard. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85733-436-4.

References Edit

  1. Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001). The Making of Sikh scripture. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780195130249.
  2. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford Handbooks. Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech. OUP Oxford. 2014. p. 380. ISBN 9780191004117.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  3. Charles Joseph Adams. "classification of religions". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on July 7, 2015. Retrieved July 30, 2022.
  4. Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E., eds. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 299–301. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  5. "Celebrations for Sikhism founder's birthday begin in Pakistan". Retrieved 2023-01-19.
  6. Almasy, Steve. 2018 [2012]. "Who are Sikhs and what do they believe?" CNN International. US: Turner Broadcasting System.
  7. Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
  8. Singh, Nirbhai (1990). Philosophy of Sikhi: Reality and Its Manifestations. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers. pp. 1–3.
  9. Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2016). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-351-90010-2.
  10. "Religions: Sikhism". 2014.
  11. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1993). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. "Themes in Comparative Religion" series. Wallingford, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-333-54107-4.
  12. Whitmer, Governor Gretchen (2022-04-01). "April 2022: Sikh Awareness and Appreciation Month". Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  13. Hautzinger, Daniel (2021-05-05). "A Brief Introduction to Sikhism". WTTW. Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  14. Simko-Bednarski, Evan (2020-07-09). "US Sikhs tirelessly travel their communities to feed hungry Americans". CNN Digital. Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  15. McLeod, William Hewat. 2019 [1998]. "Sikhism". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 7 August 2018.
  16. "Sikhs in Wolverhampton celebrate 550 years of Guru Nanak". BBC News. 12 November 2019.
  17. Singh, Patwant (2000). The Sikhs. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 17. ISBN 0-375-40728-6.
  18. Fenech, Louis, and William Hewat McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-3600-4. pp. 17, 84–5.
  19. James, William (2011). God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston. McGill–Queen's University Press. ISBN 978-0-7735-3889-4. pp. 241–42.
  20. Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001). The Making of Sikh Scripture. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–25, 123–24. ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9.
  21. Marwaha, Sonali Bhatt (2006). Colors of Truth: Religion, Self and Emotions: Perspectives of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Sikhism and Contemporary Psychology. Concept Publishing. pp. 205–206. ISBN 978-81-8069-268-0.
  22. Marty, Martin E. (1996). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. University of Chicago Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-0-226-50884-9.
  23. Singh, Pashaura (2003). The Guru Granth Sahib: Canon, Meaning and Authority. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-19-908773-0.
  24. Cite error: The named reference singhaikonkar was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  25. Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2005). Sikhism. Religions of the World. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers. pp. 41–50. ISBN 0-7910-8098-6.
  26. Cole, William Owen; Sambhi, Piara Singh (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 200.
  27. Teece, Geoff (2004). Sikhism: Religion in focus. Black Rabbit Books. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-58340-469-0.
  28. Reichberg, Gregory M.; Syse, Henrik (2014). Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 672–674. ISBN 978-1-139-95204-0.
  29. Pattanaik, Devdutt (2019). "Where Hinduism and Sikhism meet". Mumbai Mirror.
  30. Nayar, Kamala Elizabeth; Sandhu, Jaswinder Singh (2012). The Socially Involved Renunciate: Guru Nanak's Discourse to the Nath Yogis. State University of New York Press. p. 106. ISBN 978-0-7914-7950-6.
  31. Singh, Pritam (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-04945-5. A large number of Hindu and Muslim peasants converted to Sikhism from conviction, fear, economic motives, or a combination of the three (Khushwant Singh 1999: 106; Ganda Singh 1935: 73).
  32. 32.0 32.1 Cite error: The named reference pashauraarjan was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  33. Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis E. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  34. Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 121 (1): 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726. JSTOR 606726.
  35. Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. JSTOR 606445.
  36. McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 22 (sup001): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379.
  37. Cite error: The named reference Gandhi was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  38. Cite error: The named reference Chanchreek 2007 142 was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  39. Cite error: The named reference Dugga 2001 33 was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).

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