ancient Indian language

Sanskrit is an ancient Indian language. It is a sacred language of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism and the origin of most Indian languages. Today, about 14,000 people in India use it as their daily language.[1] It is one of the 22 official languages of India[3] and an official language of the state of Uttarakhand.[4]

संस्कृतम् saṃskṛtam
The word Sanskrit (संस्कृतम्) written in Sanskrit. Displayed in the Sarai font for Devanagari.
The word Sanskrit (संस्कृतम्) written in Devanagari.
RegionSouth Asia
Native speakers
14,000[1] (2001)
Indo Aryan
No native script.[2]
Written in Devanagari, various Brāhmī-based.
Official status
Official language in
 India, Uttarakhand
one of the 22 scheduled languages of India
Language codes
ISO 639-1sa
ISO 639-2san
ISO 639-3san
A Sanskrit script

Sanskrit is a standardized dialect of Old Indo-Aryan. Its linguistic ancestry can be traced back to Proto-Indo-European. The Indo-Aryan migration theory proposes that the Indo-Aryans migrated from the Central Asian steppes into South Asia during the early part of the 2nd millennium BC, bringing with them the Indo-Aryan languages.[5] The main script used to write Sanskrit is Devanāgarī, but it can be written in the scripts of various Indian languages and is sometimes written by the Latin alphabet.

[1]William Jones, working as a judge in India in the 18th century, studied Sanskrit and realized similarities of Sanskrit to Latin and Greek and dravidian language base from to sanskrit.

Sanskrit literature includes poetry and drama. There is also scientific, technical, philosophical and religious texts.[6][7] Sanskrit continues to be widely used as a ceremonial language in Hindu religious rituals and Buddhist practice in the form of hymns and chants.

The language has a very complex grammar, with eight grammatical cases, the grammatical genders, and three grammatical numbers.


  1. 1.0 1.1 "Comparative speaker's strength of scheduled languages − 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2001". Census of India, 2001. Office of the Registrar and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 31 December 2009.
  2. Banerji, Suresh (1971). A companion to Sanskrit literature: spanning a period of over three thousand years, containing brief accounts of authors, works, characters, technical terms, geographical names, myths, legends, and twelve appendices. p. 672. ISBN 978-81-208-0063-2.
  3. "Indian Constitution Art.344(1) & Art.345" (PDF). 4 October 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2007. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
  4. "Sanskrit is second official language in Uttarakhand – The Hindustan Times". 19 January 2010. Retrieved 2012-04-05.
  5. Witzel, Michael 2005. Indocentrism. In Bryant, Edwin & Patton, Laurie L. The Indo-Aryan controversy: evidence and inference in Indian history. London: Routledge.
  6. "Sanskrit as a language of science".
  7. Katju, Markandey (5 December 2011). "Markandey Katju: What is India?". The Times of India.