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Tajikistan

republic in Central Asia

Tajikistan is a country in Central Asia. It was previously part of the Soviet Union. Tajikistan is a republic. The capital city is Dushanbe. The official language is Tajik,which is a dialect of Farsi (Persian).

Republic of Tajikistan

  • Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон (Tajik)
    Jumhuriyi Tojikiston
{{{coat_alt}}}
Emblem
Anthem: Суруди Миллӣ
(English: "National Anthem")
Location of  Tajikistan  (green)
Location of  Tajikistan  (green)
Capital
and largest city
Dushanbe
38°33′N 68°48′E / 38.550°N 68.800°E / 38.550; 68.800
Official languagesTajik
Inter-ethnic
language
Russian
Ethnic groups
(2010[1])
Demonym(s)Tajik or Tajikistani[2]
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic
• President
Emomali Rahmon
Kokhir Rasulzoda
• Chairman of the Majlisi Milli
Mahmadsaid Ubaydulloyev
LegislatureSupreme Assembly
National Assembly
Assembly of Representatives
Formation
27 October 1924
• Tajik SSR
5 December 1929
• Independence from the Soviet Union
9 September 1991
21 December 1991
• Recognized
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
6 November 1994
Area
• Total
143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) (94th)
• Water (%)
1.8
Population
• 2019 estimate
9,275,827 [3] ((96th) [4])
• Density
48.6/km2 (125.9/sq mi) (155th)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$30.547 billion[5] (132nd)
• Per capita
$3,354[5] (155th)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$7.350 billion[5] (147th)
• Per capita
$807[5] (164th)
Gini (2015)34[6]
medium
HDI (2018)Increase 0.650[7]
medium · 127th
CurrencySomoni (TJS)
Time zoneUTC+5 (TJT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+992
ISO 3166 codeTJ
Internet TLD.tj

Tajikistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the CIS. Tajikistan is eighth in size of CIS countries.

Contents

GeographyEdit

Tajikistan is one of the new countries in South-central Asia. It is west of China, north of Afghanistan and Pakistan, that is separated by a narrow 14 km strip of Tajik claimed land known as the Wakhan Corridor in the Pamirs, east of Uzbekistan and south of Kyrgyzstan.

Tajikistan is landlocked in the middle of the continent of Asia.

Its total area is only about 143,100 square kilometres (55,300 sq mi). It is slightly smaller than Wisconsin, USA. Tajikistan’s borders total to 3,651 kilometres (2,269 mi) long.

 
A map of Tajikistan
 
Karakul lake
 
Dushanbe railway station

The climate has hot summers and mild winters.

Almost all of the country (85 percent) is mountainous with river-valleys running across, however high altitude mountains of Pomir are in the eastern part of the country, (which is the west end of the Himalayas). The climate there is semiarid to polar. The mountains cover an area of about 120,000 km2 (46,000 sq mi). There are other countries within the mountain range. The mountains are between 3,600 to 4,400 metres (11,800 to 14,400 ft) high.

Karakul lake is located within a 52-kilometre-wide (32 mi) meteorite crater, which would have formed about 25 million years ago,[8] or less than 5 million years ago.[9]

HistoryEdit

The land that is now Tajikistan has been lived in since 4,000 BC. It has been under the rule of various empires throughout history, mostly the Persian Empires.

In the year 800, Islam came to Tajikistan.

In 1868, Tajikistan became a Russian Colony. It later became a part of the Soviet Union .

On 9 September 1991, after long periods of mass protests against Soviet Government, the Parliament of Tajikistan declared independence from Soviet Union, and held first presidential elections.

Rahmon Nabiev, who ran the country during Soviet Union in the late 1970s and early 1980s, become its president. He was unable to bring any much needed reforms to the country, and so there were protests in the capital city, Dushanbe. The government responded by organising a pro-government demonstration, mainly made of old Communist Party members and people from the southeast of the country brought to the city. Anti-government protests did not stop, so the government gave weapons to the pro-government demonstrator. Then the Opposition armed themselves.

After this bloody civil war broke out. In which all of the new democratic parties, political organisations and movements together with the political Islamic movements created an alliance, opposing the old communist government and southerners.

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, many American and French Soldiers came into the country.

ProvincesEdit

Tajikistan is divided into 4 provinces.

Division ISO 3166-2 Capital Area (km²)[10] Pop (2008)[10]
Sughd TJ-SU Khujand 25,400 2,132,100
Region of Republican Subordination TJ-RR Dushanbe 28,600 1,606,900
Khatlon TJ-KT Qurghonteppa  24,800 2,579,300
Gorno-Badakhshan TJ-BG Khorugh 64,200 218,000

ReferencesEdit

  1. Национальный состав, владение языками и гражданство населения Республики Таджикистан Том III. stat.tj
  2. The Names of Nationalities
  3. [1]
  4. [2]
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  6. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". databank.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  7. "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
  8. "Kara-Kul Structure, Tajikistan". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved 2006-05-25..
  9. Earth Impact Database
  10. 10.0 10.1 Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January 2008, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (Russian)