Tajikistan is a country in Central Asia. It was previously part of the Soviet Union. Tajikistan is a republic. The capital city is Dushanbe. The official language is Tajik,which is a dialect of Farsi (Persian).
Republic of Tajikistan
Anthem: Суруди Миллӣ
(English: "National Anthem")
Location of Tajikistan (green)
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Demonym(s)||Tajik or Tajikistani|
|Government||Unitary dominant-party presidential constitutional republic|
• Chairman of the Majlisi Milli
|Assembly of Representatives|
|27 October 1924|
|5 December 1929|
|9 September 1991|
|21 December 1991|
|26 December 1991|
|2 March 1992|
|6 November 1994|
|143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) (94th)|
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
|9,275,827  ((96th) )|
|48.6/km2 (125.9/sq mi) (155th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2018 estimate|
|$30.547 billion (132nd)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2018 estimate|
|$7.350 billion (147th)|
• Per capita
|HDI (2018)|| 0.650|
medium · 127th
|Time zone||UTC+5 (TJT)|
|ISO 3166 code||TJ|
Tajikistan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the CIS. Tajikistan is eighth in size of CIS countries.
Tajikistan is one of the new countries in South-central Asia. It is west of China, north of Afghanistan and Pakistan, that is separated by a narrow 14 km strip of Tajik claimed land known as the Wakhan Corridor in the Pamirs, east of Uzbekistan and south of Kyrgyzstan.
The climate has hot summers and mild winters.
Almost all of the country (85 percent) is mountainous with river-valleys running across, however high altitude mountains of Pomir are in the eastern part of the country, (which is the west end of the Himalayas). The climate there is semiarid to polar. The mountains cover an area of about 120,000 km2 (46,000 sq mi). There are other countries within the mountain range. The mountains are between 3,600 to 4,400 metres (11,800 to 14,400 ft) high.
In the year 800, Islam came to Tajikistan.
Rahmon Nabiev, who ran the country during Soviet Union in the late 1970s and early 1980s, become its president. He was unable to bring any much needed reforms to the country, and so there were protests in the capital city, Dushanbe. The government responded by organising a pro-government demonstration, mainly made of old Communist Party members and people from the southeast of the country brought to the city. Anti-government protests did not stop, so the government gave weapons to the pro-government demonstrator. Then the Opposition armed themselves.
After this bloody civil war broke out. In which all of the new democratic parties, political organisations and movements together with the political Islamic movements created an alliance, opposing the old communist government and southerners.
After the September 11, 2001 attacks, many American and French Soldiers came into the country.
In 2010 a leaked US Embassy cable described Tajikistan as
"... The greatest obstacle to improving the economy is resistance to reform. From the President down to the policeman on the street, government is characterized by cronyism and corruption. Emomali Rahmon and his family control the country's major businesses, including the largest bank, and they play hardball to protect their business interests, no matter the cost to the economy writ large... The government has limited opposition party operations and rejected electoral law reforms for the February 28, 2010 parliamentary elections. The Embassy does not expect the elections to be free and fair. There has been almost no coverage of opposition political parties by state media, and most of the population is unaware of the purpose of the elections..." 
Tajikistan is divided into 4 provinces.
|Division||ISO 3166-2||Capital||Area (km²)||Pop (2008)|
|Region of Republican Subordination||TJ-RR||Dushanbe||28,600||1,606,900|
- Национальный состав, владение языками и гражданство населения Республики Таджикистан Том III. stat.tj
- The Names of Nationalities
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". databank.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- "2018 Human Development Report". United Nations Development Programme. 2018. Retrieved 14 September 2018.
- "Kara-Kul Structure, Tajikistan". NASA Earth Observatory. Retrieved 2006-05-25..
- Earth Impact Database
- The Guardian "US embassy cables: 'Cronyism and corruption' hinder reform in Tajikistan".
- Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January 2008, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (in Russian)