sovereign state in Central Asia

Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, is a country in Central Asia. The country is landlocked (has no coast) and mountainous. It has borders with China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Its capital is Bishkek. It was a socialist republic of the Soviet Union, but became independent in 1991. The country was peaceful in the 1990s. Its president, Askar Akayev showed an autocratic and authoritarian character.

Kyrgyz Republic
  • Кыргыз Республикасы (Kyrgyz)
    Kyrgyz Respublikasy
  • Кыргызская Республика (Russian)
    Kyrgyzskaya Respublika
Emblem of Kyrgyzstan
Anthem: Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик Гимни
"National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic"
Location of  Kyrgyzstan  (green)
Location of  Kyrgyzstan  (green)
and largest city
42°52′N 74°36′E / 42.867°N 74.600°E / 42.867; 74.600
Major languagesKyrgyz & Russian
Minority languages
  • Tajik
  • Uzbek
  • Dungan
  • Uyghur
  • Turkish
  • Tatar
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Sadyr Japarov
Akylbek Japarov
Talant Mamytov[3]
LegislatureSupreme Council
• From Russia
27 November 1917
5 December 1936
31 August 1991
21 December 1991
26 December 1991
2 March 1992
• Total
199,951 km2 (77,202 sq mi) (85th)
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
Increase 6,586,600[1] (110th)
• 2009 census
• Density
27.4/km2 (71.0/sq mi) (176th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $35.324 billion[5] (127th)
• Per capita
Increase $5,470[5] (134th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $8.455 billion[5] (141st)
• Per capita
Increase $1,309[5] (158th)
Gini (2018)Negative increase 27.7[6]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.697[7]
medium · 120th
CurrencyKyrgyzstani som (c) (KGS)
Time zoneUTC+6 (KGT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+996
ISO 3166 codeKG

Russian is spoken as an official language at state level.

In 2005, there was an unexpected revolution after the elections of parliament (the legislature) in March. President Akayev resigned on April 4 of that year. Opposition leaders formed a coalition (a group from more than one party), and a new government was formed, led by President Kurmanbek Bakiyev and Prime Minister Feliks Kulov.

At the moment, different political groups are fighting for power in the republic. Three of the 75 elected members of Parliament have been murdered. Kyrgyzstan’s main religion is Islam.


Tian Shan mountain range in Kyrgyzstan.

Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia. It is farther from the ocean than any other country in the world. It borders Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Mountains cover over 80% of the country.[8]

The land area of Kyrgyzstan is just a little bigger than the state of Nebraska.

Issyk-Kul Lake is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan. It is the largest mountain lake in Asia and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Titicaca. Peak Jengish Chokusu, at 7,439 m (24,406 ft), is the highest point. The highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too range.

Bishkek, the capital city, is in the north. It is largest city in Kyrgyzstan. The second largest is the ancient town of Osh.


Name Kyrgyz name Oblast Population [9] Type
Balykchy Балыкчы Issyk Kul 41,342 city
Batken Баткен Batken 10,987 city
Bishkek Бишкек - 750,327 city
Cholpon-Ata Чолпоната Issyk Kul 8,851 city
Isfana Исфана Batken 16,850 city
Jalal-Abad Жалалабат Jalal-Abad 70,401 city
Kant Кант Chuy 22,075 city
Kara-Balta Карабалта Chuy 47,159 city
Karakol Каракол Issyk Kul 64,322 city
Karaköl Каракөл Jalal-Abad 17,977 city
Kara-Suu Карасуу Osh 19,143 city
Kerben Кербен Jalal-Abad n/a city
Kochkor-Ata Кочкората Jalal-Abad 16,104 city
Kökjanggak Көкжаңгак Jalal-Abad 10,727 city
Kyzyl-Kiya Кызылкыя Batken 31,844 city
Mailuu-Suu Майлуусуу Jalal-Abad 20,365 city
Naryn Нарын Naryn 40,050 city
Nookat Ноокат Osh n/a city
Osh Osh 208,520 city
Shopokov Шопоков Chuy 9,133 city
Sulyukta Сүлүктү Batken 14,145 city
Talas Tалас Talas 32,638 city
Tashkömür Ташкөмүр Jalal-Abad 23,331 city
Tokmok Tокмок Chuy 59,409 city
Uzgen Өзгөн Osh 41,497 city



Kyrgyzstan was the second poorest country in the former Soviet Union next to Tajikistan. Now it is the second poorest country in Central Asia.

Agriculture is an important part of the economy in Kyrgyzstan. Much farming is still being done by hand and by horse. Main crops include wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, and fruit.

Kyrgyzstan is rich in mineral resources. It has small petroleum and natural gas reserves. Among its mineral reserves are solid amount of coal, gold, uranium, antimony and other metals but not iron. Metallurgy is an important industry.

Imports include petroleum and natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, most machinery, wood and paper products, food and construction materials. Its trade partners are Germany, Russia, China, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan.



  1. 1.0 1.1 "Основные итоги естественного движения населения январе-августе 2020г".
  2. Национальный состав населения. [ Total population by nationality]. Bureau of Statistics of Kyrgyzstan (in Russian, Kyrgyz, and English). 2019. Archived from the original (XLS) on 2018-11-13. Retrieved 2021-08-27.
  3. "Сейчас Kg🇰🇬".
  4. "History of Central Asia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 March 2021.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Kyrgyz Republic". World Bank. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  6. "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Kyrgyz Republic". World Bank. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
  7. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  8. Escobar, Pepe. "The Tulip Revolution takes root". Asia Times Online. Archived from the original on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 21 November 2007.
  9. 1999 census results, as taken from the German wikipedia article Liste der Städte in Kirgisistan. Numbers in italics are 2008 estimates, taken from "". Archived from the original on 2012-12-04. Retrieved 2013-08-17..