Niger

sovereign state in western Africa

Niger or the Niger[10][11] (/nˈʒɛər/ or /ˈnər/;[12][13] French: [niʒɛʁ]), officially the Republic of the Niger,[10][11] is a country in western Africa. The capital is Niamey, and the official language is French. It is surrounded by Algeria and Libya to the north, Chad to the east, Nigeria and Benin to the south, and Burkina Faso and Mali to the west. Niger is landlocked, meaning it has no coastline. Niger gets its name from the Niger River, whose name possibly comes from the Berber word "River of Rivers".[14]

Republic of the Niger
  • République du Niger  (French)
Coat of arms of Niger
Coat of arms
Motto: 
  • "Fraternité, Travail, Progrès" (French)
  • "Fraternity, Work, Progress"
Anthem: La Nigérienne
Location of  Niger  (dark green)
Location of  Niger  (dark green)
Capital
and largest city
Niamey
13°32′N 2°05′E / 13.533°N 2.083°E / 13.533; 2.083
Official languagesFrench
National languages[1]
Demonym(s)Nigerien (/nˈʒɛəriən/ [2]
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Mohamed Bazoum
Ouhoumoudou Mahamadou
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence 
from France
• Republic proclaimed
18 December 1958
• Declared
3 August 1960
Area
• Total
1,267,000 km2 (489,000 sq mi) (21st)
• Water (%)
0.02
Population
• 2020 estimate
23,196,002 (57th)
• 2012 census
17,138,707
• Density
12.1/km2 (31.3/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$23.475 billion[3] (140th)
• Per capita
$1,213[4] (183rd)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$9.869 billion[5] (136th)
• Per capita
$510[6] (179th)
Gini (2014)Negative increase 34.0[7]
medium · 70th
HDI (2019)Increase 0.394[8]
low · 189th
CurrencyWest African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zoneUTC+1 (WAT)
Driving sideright[9]
Calling code+227
ISO 3166 codeNE
Internet TLD.ne
  1. Lowest ranked.

The Mali Empire and the Songhai Empire both had land in what is now Niger. Later France controlled the land that is now Niger. Niger has a population, or the number of people living in an area, of 15,306,252 and an area of 1,267,000 square kilometres. Much of Niger is desert.

After a military coup in 2010, Niger is now a democratic, multi-party state. Most of the people live in rural areas, and have little access to advanced education.

Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with a lack of contraception. 41.4% live in poverty. Hunger plagues the country.

Niger’s main exports are uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas and onions. Millet and sorghum are grown in the south, as well as cassava and sugarcane. Rice is grown in the Niger River valley. Peanuts are the most important cash crop. Other important crops are cotton and pulses.

Niger is home to the critically endangered addax antelope. West African giraffes are the only giraffes in West Africa that exist in Niger.

GeographyEdit

Niger is on the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions. Niger's area is 1,267,000 square kilometres (489,191 sq mi) of which 300 square kilometres (116 sq mi) is water. It is the world's twenty-second largest country. Niger borders seven countries. The longest border is with Nigeria to the south.

The lowest point is the Niger River, with an elevation of 200 metres (656 ft). The highest point is Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès in the Aïr Mountains at 2,022 m (6,634 ft).

CitiesEdit

This table shows cities with a population over 10,000, according to 2001 census.

City Census division Population
2001[15]
Position[16]
Abalak Tahoua 12,764 15°27′08″N 6°16′42″E / 15.4522222°N 6.2783333°E / 15.4522222; 6.2783333
Agadez Agadez 78,289 16°58′26″N 7°59′27″E / 16.9738889°N 7.9908333°E / 16.9738889; 7.9908333
Aguié Maradi 11,475 13°30′29″N 7°46′38″E / 13.5080556°N 7.7772222°E / 13.5080556; 7.7772222
Arlit Agadez 69,435 18°43′57″N 7°22′05″E / 18.7325°N 7.3680556°E / 18.7325; 7.3680556
Birni Ngaouré Dosso 10,775 13°05′16″N 2°55′01″E / 13.0877778°N 2.9169444°E / 13.0877778; 2.9169444
Birni Nkonni Tahoua 44,663 13°48′N 5°15′E / 13.8°N 5.25°E / 13.8; 5.25
Dakoro Maradi 18,875 13°49′00″N 6°25′00″E / 13.8166667°N 6.4166667°E / 13.8166667; 6.4166667
Diffa Diffa 23,409 13°18′56″N 12°36′32″E / 13.3155556°N 12.6088889°E / 13.3155556; 12.6088889
Dogondoutchi Dosso 29,244 13°38′46″N 4°01′44″E / 13.6461111°N 4.0288889°E / 13.6461111; 4.0288889
Dosso Dosso 43,561 13°02′40″N 3°11′41″E / 13.0444444°N 3.1947222°E / 13.0444444; 3.1947222
Filingué Tillabéri 11,661 14°21′00″N 3°19′00″E / 14.35°N 3.3166667°E / 14.35; 3.3166667
Gaya Dosso 28,385 11°53′16″N 3°26′48″E / 11.8877778°N 3.4466667°E / 11.8877778; 3.4466667
Gouré Zinder 13,422 13°59′13″N 10°16′12″E / 13.9869444°N 10.27°E / 13.9869444; 10.27
Guidan Roumji Maradi 10,744 13°51′00″N 6°58′00″E / 13.85°N 6.9666667°E / 13.85; 6.9666667
Illéla Tahoua 15,805 14°27′42″N 5°14′51″E / 14.4616667°N 5.2475°E / 14.4616667; 5.2475
Kollo Tillabéri 10,533 13°18′31″N 2°19′51″E / 13.3086111°N 2.3308333°E / 13.3086111; 2.3308333
Madaoua Tahoua 22,175 14°06′00″N 6°26′00″E / 14.1°N 6.4333333°E / 14.1; 6.4333333
Magaria Zinder 17,776 14°34′00″N 8°44′00″E / 14.5666667°N 8.7333333°E / 14.5666667; 8.7333333
Maïné-Soroa Diffa 10,176 13°13′04″N 12°01′36″E / 13.2177778°N 12.0266667°E / 13.2177778; 12.0266667
Maradi Maradi 148,017 13°29′30″N 7°05′47″E / 13.4916667°N 7.0963889°E / 13.4916667; 7.0963889
Matameye Zinder 17,930 13°25′26″N 8°28′40″E / 13.4238889°N 8.4777778°E / 13.4238889; 8.4777778
Mirria Zinder 19,161 13°42′51″N 9°09′02″E / 13.7141667°N 9.1505556°E / 13.7141667; 9.1505556
Nguigmi Diffa 15,922 14°15′10″N 13°06′39″E / 14.2527778°N 13.1108333°E / 14.2527778; 13.1108333
Niamey Niamey Capital District 707,951 13°31′00″N 2°07′00″E / 13.5166667°N 2.1166667°E / 13.5166667; 2.1166667
Say Tillabéri 10,502 13°06′29″N 2°21′35″E / 13.1080556°N 2.3597222°E / 13.1080556; 2.3597222
Tahoua Tahoua 73,002 14°53′25″N 5°16′04″E / 14.8902778°N 5.2677778°E / 14.8902778; 5.2677778
Tânout Zinder 15,779 14°58′13″N 8°53′30″E / 14.9702778°N 8.8916667°E / 14.9702778; 8.8916667
Tchirozérine Agadez 10,032 17°15′37″N 7°45′03″E / 17.2602778°N 7.7508333°E / 17.2602778; 7.7508333
Téra Tillabéri 19,508 14°00′38″N 0°45′11″E / 14.0105556°N 0.7530556°E / 14.0105556; 0.7530556
Tessaoua Maradi 31,667 13°45′12″N 7°59′11″E / 13.7533333°N 7.9863889°E / 13.7533333; 7.9863889
Tillabéri Tillabéri 16,683 14°12′22″N 1°27′12″E / 14.206146°N 1.453457°E / 14.206146; 1.453457
Zinder Zinder 170,575 13°48′00″N 8°59′00″E / 13.8°N 8.9833333°E / 13.8; 8.9833333

ClimateEdit

Niger's subtropical climate is mainly very hot and dry. Much of it is covered by desert. In the extreme south there is a tropical climate on the edges of the Niger River basin. The land is mostly desert plains and sand dunes. There is flat to rolling savanna in the south and hills in the north.

WildlifeEdit

DemographicsEdit

There are several ethnic groups in Niger:

EducationEdit

The literacy rate (the amount of the adult population who can read or write) of Niger is among the lowest in the world. In 2005 it was estimated to be only 28.7% (42.9% male and 15.1% female).[17] Primary education in Niger is required for six years.[18] The primary school enrollment and attendance rates are low, particularly for girls.[18] Children are often made to work rather than attend school. This is particularly true during planting or harvest periods.

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. République du Niger, "Loi n° 2001-037 du 31 décembre 2001 fixant les modalités de promotion et de développement des langues nationales." L'aménagement linguistique dans le monde Archived 19 October 2018 at the Wayback Machine (accessed 21 September 2016)
  2. "Nigerien – definition of Nigerien in English from the Oxford Dictionaries". Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 1 March 2018.
  3. "Report for Selected Country Groups and Subjects (PPP valuation of country GDP)". IMF. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  4. World Economic Outlook Database, January 2018 Archived 3 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine, International Monetary Fund Archived 14 February 2006 at Archive-It. Database updated on 12 April 2017. Accessed on 21 April 2017.
  5. "World Economic Outlook Database. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". International Monetary Fund. 17 April 2018.
  6. World Economic Outlook Database, April 2018 Archived 26 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 17 April 2018.
  7. World Bank GINI index Archived 9 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, accessed on 21 January 2016.
  8. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  9. Which side of the road do they drive on? Archived 14 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine Brian Lucas. August 2005. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
  10. 10.0 10.1 "ISO 3166". ISO Online Browsing Platform. Archived from the original on 17 June 2016. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". United Nations Statisticsc Division. 1 March 2017. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2017.
  12. How Do You Pronounce "Niger"? Archived 14 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine from Slate.com, retrieved 4 March 2012
  13. "Niger." The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. 2003. Houghton Mifflin Company 22 February 2013 thefreedictionary.com/Niger Archived 12 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  14. Hunwick, John O. (2003) [1999]. Timbuktu and the Songhay Empire: Al-Sadi's Tarikh al-Sudan down to 1613 and other contemporary documents. Leiden: Brill. p. 275 Fn 22. ISBN 90-04-11207-3.
  15. Population figures from citypopulation.de, citing (2001) Institut National de la Statistique du Niger.
  16. fallingrain.com.
  17. "Africa :: Niger — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Niger" Archived 2008-12-05 at the Wayback Machine. 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Other websitesEdit