Benin (officially called the Republic of Benin) is a country in Africa. The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo. The government is based in Cotonou, the country's largest city. Most people live on the small southern coastline on the Bight of Benin.
Republic of Benin
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
• Republic of Dahomey established
|11 December 1958|
• from France
|1 August 1960|
|114,763 km2 (44,310 sq mi) (100th)|
• Water (%)
• 2019 estimate
• 2013 census
|94.8/km2 (245.5/sq mi) (120th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$29.918 billion (137th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$11.386 billion (141st)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2015)|| 47.8|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.545|
low · 158th
|Currency||West African CFA franc (XOF)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (WAT)|
|ISO 3166 code||BJ|
Because Benin was colonized by France and is still close to it, the official language of Benin is French. Languages such as Fon and Yoruba are commonly spoken. The largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism. This is followed closely by Islam, Vodun, and Protestantism.
Benin is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, La Francophonie, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Petroleum Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.
From the 17th to the 19th century, Benin was ruled by the Kingdom of Dahomey. It was called the Slave Coast by white people from as early as the 17th century, because of the large number of slaves shipped from Porto-Novo, Cotonou, and other ports to European colonies in the Americas.
After slavery was made illegal, France fought a war against Dahomey and took over the kingdom. They renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained official independence from France. From 1972 to 1990 a Marxist–Leninist state called the People's Republic of Benin existed. The current Republic of Benin was formed in 1991.
Benin is a narrow country in west Africa. The country measures about 325 km (202 mi) at its widest point. It is between the Equator and the Tropic of Cancer. Benin is bordered by Togo to the west, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north, Nigeria to the east, and the Bight of Benin to the south.
The highest point is Mont Sokbaro at 658 m (2,159 ft).
Reserve du W du Niger and Pendjari National Park attract tourists who want to see elephants, lions, antelopes, hippos, and monkeys. Historically Benin has been a home for the endangered Painted Hunting Dog, Lycaon pictus;
Benin's climate is hot and humid. Yearly rainfall in the coastal area averages 1300 mm or about 51 inches. Benin has two rainy and two dry seasons per year. The main rainy season is from April to late July, with a shorter less strong rainy period from late September to November. The main dry season is from December to April, with a short cooler dry season from late July to early September. In Cotonou, the average maximum temperature is 31 °C (87.8 °F); the minimum is 24 °C (75.2 °F).
Benin is divided into 12 Departments. Then it is divided into 77 communes.
In the 2010 census, 27.2% of the population of Benin were Christian, 24.4% were Muslim, 17.3% practiced Vodun, 6% other traditional local religious groups, 1.9% other religious groups, and 6.5% have no religious affiliation.
Beninese cuisine is known in Africa for its exotic ingredients and flavorful dishes. Beninese cuisine has lots of fresh meals with a variety of sauces. In southern Benin cuisine, the most common ingredient is corn. It is often used to prepare dough which is mainly eaten with peanut- or tomato-based sauces. Fish and chicken are the most common meats used in southern Beninese cuisine however Beef, goat, and bush rat are also eaten. The main food in northern Benin is yams. The northern provinces use beef and pork meat which is fried in palm or peanut oil or cooked in sauces. Cheese is used in some dishes. Couscous, rice, and beans are commonly eaten, along with fruits such as mangoes, oranges, avocados, bananas, kiwi fruit, and pineapples.
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