sovereign state in West Africa

Nigeria is a country in west Africa. It has a population of 188,500,000,[6] more than any other country in Africa. Its capital is Abuja. Nigeria is known for being a large country, and one of the richest in Africa.[7]

Federal Republic of Nigeria
  • Jamhuriyar Taraiyar Nijeriya  (Hausa)
  • Ọ̀hàńjíkọ̀ Ọ̀hànézè Naìjíríyà  (Igbo)
  • Orílẹ̀-èdè Olómìniira Aláàpapọ̀ Nàìjíríà  (Yoruba)
Coat of arms of Nigeria
Coat of arms
Motto: "Unity and Faith, Peace and Progress"
Anthem: Arise, O Compatriots

Location of Nigeria shown in dark green
Location of Nigeria shown in dark green
Largest cityLagos
6°27′N 3°23′E / 6.450°N 3.383°E / 6.450; 3.383
Official languagesEnglish
Major languages
Other languages[1]


constitutional republic
• President
Muhammadu Buhari
Yemi Osinbajo
Ahmed Lawan
Femi Gbajabiamila
Justice Ibrahim Tanko Muhammad
LegislatureNational Assembly
House of Representatives
from the United Kingdom
• Unification of Southern and Northern Nigeria
• Declared and recognised
1 October 1960
• Republic declared
1 October 1963
29 May 1999
• Total
923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi) (32nd)
• Water (%)
• 2015 estimate
199,800,400[2] (7th)
• 2006 census
• Density
188.9/km2 (489.2/sq mi) (71st)
GDP (PPP)2016 estimate
• Total
$1,166 trillion[3] (20th)
• Per capita
$6,351[3] (124th)
GDP (nominal)2016 estimate
• Total
$484.895 billion[3] (21st)
• Per capita
$2,640[3] (122nd)
Gini (2010)Positive decrease 43.0[4]
HDI (2015)Increase 0.514[5]
low · 152nd
CurrencyNaira (₦) (NGN)
Time zoneUTC+1 (WAT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (not observed)
Driving sideright
Calling code+234
ISO 3166 codeNG


From the 1500s to the 1800s, many people from the land now called Nigeria (and other parts of West Africa) were taken away and turned into slaves by Europeans, and they were sent to work in the Americas. These slaves were bought and sold in the Americas by Europeans who lived there. Today, many people related to those slaves still live in America, though they are no longer slaves. They are called African Americans.

From 1901 to 1960, the United Kingdom ruled Nigeria. However, by 1960 the people wanted independence very much, and Britain finally let them have it. For some time after this, Nigeria was a dictatorship, where the leaders stayed in control even if the majority of people disliked them. At this time, Nigeria had a big war called the Biafro War with Christian Igbo people who wanted their own country in the East. They did not want to be a part of Nigeria, which was ruled by The Muslim North and Mixed West. The war ended with a reunification of Nigeria.

In 1999, Nigeria became a democracy, where people choose their leaders. After that, Olusegun Obasanjo, a Yoruba Christian from the south, became President. In 2007, Umaru Yar'Adua, a Hausa Muslim, was elected to be the next President. Yar'Adua died in May, 2009. Goodluck Jonathan, the vice president, then became president.

Goodluck Jonathan was re-elected as the president after wining the 2011 general elections under the political party, PDP.

He served as the country's president until 2015.

Since 2002, there have been a battles in the north of the country. The battles are between government troops and the Islamist group Boko Haram. This group wants to have Sharia law for the country.[8]


Nigeria has a total area of 923,768 km2 (356,669 sq mi).[9] It is the world's 32nd-largest country. It shares a border with Benin (773 km), Niger (1497 km), Chad (87 km) and Cameroon (1690 km). It has a coastline of at least 853 km.[10]

The Zuma Rock near Suleja

The highest point in Nigeria is Chappal Waddi at 2,419 m (7,936 ft). The main rivers are the Niger and the Benue River. They come together and empty into the Niger Delta, one of the world's largest river deltas. It is the location of a large area of Central African Mangroves.


These are the cities in Nigeria with over 1 million people as of 2012.

City Population
Lagos 11,547,000
Kano 3,466,000
Ibadan 3,028,000
Abuja 2,245,000
Port Harcourt 1,947,000
Kaduna 1,566,000
Benin City 1,398,000
Zaria 1,075,000

National anthem Of NigeriaEdit

In Nigeria, there are two national anthems. The first one is called "Nigeria We Hail Thee". The second and current national anthem is called "Arise O' Compatriots. The first one was written by Lilian Jean William and composed by Frances Berda. The second one was written by 5 people and was composed by the Police band. Arise O' Compatriots was first heard during Nigeria's independence.[source?]


In Nigeria, there are almost equal numbers of Muslims and Christians. Most of the Christians live in the south, and most of the Muslims live in the north. Contrary to some beliefs, the Nigerian civil war was not only attributed to religious intolerance. The war which took place between 6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970, was a political conflict caused by the attempted secession of the southeastern provinces of Nigeria as the self-proclaimed Republic of Biafra. The conflict was the result of economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria.

Natural resourcesEdit

Nigeria produces a large amount of oil, and some fighting has been going on because many people want a share of the oil profits. This fighting has been happening in the area called the Niger Delta, where the Niger River flows into the Atlantic Ocean.

The largest city in Nigeria is Lagos. Nigeria has both grasslands and rainforests, and can get very hot, because it is close to the Equator. Petroleum and agriculture make up the Nigerian economy.


Afang Soup

Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Many different spices, herbs and flavourings are used along with palm oil or groundnut oil. These make deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili peppers. Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish. Good smelling market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied.[11]


Association football is Nigeria's national sport. The country has its own Premier League of football. Nigeria's Men's national football team, known as the Super Eagles, has made the World Cup five times. These were in 1994, 1998, 2002, 2010, 2014, and most recently in 2018. They won the African Cup of Nations in 1980, 1994 and 2013. They also hosted the Junior World Cup. They won the gold medal for football in the 1996 Summer Olympics.

Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket, sprints and track and field.[12] Boxing is also an important sport in Nigeria; Dick Tiger and Samuel Peter are both former World Champions.

Related pagesEdit


  1. "Languages of Nigeria". Ethnologue. Retrieved 12 September 2010.
  2. "United Nations world population prospects"(PDF) 2015 revision
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 "Nigeria". World Economic Outlook Database, April 2015. International Monetary Fund. 26 April 2015.
  4. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  5. "2015 Human Development Report Statistical Annex" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2015. p. 18. Retrieved December 14, 2015.
  6. Population Total,
  7. "Nigeria becomes Africa's largest economy". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
  8. From Cultural Justice to Inter-Ethnic Mediation, Basil Ugorji - 2012
  9. "Rank Order – Area". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  10. "Africa :: Nigeria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  11. H.O. Anthonio & M. Isoun: "Nigerian Cookbook". Macmillan, Lagos, 1982.
  12. "Nigerian Basketball". 2011. Archived from the original on 1 September 2012. Retrieved 7 June 2011.