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Republic of Ireland

republic covering major parts of the island of Ireland

Ireland is a European country on the island of Ireland. It is a member of the European Union. The country is sometimes called the Republic of Ireland in order to distinguish between the territory of the Irish state and island proper, but Ireland is its official name. It covers about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The other sixth is called Northern Ireland, which is still part of the United Kingdom. The republic's capital is Dublin. Cork is the second largest city in the country and the third largest on the island of Ireland. The population of Ireland is 4.6 million. English is the main language spoken. The Irish language is widely taught in all schools, and it is still spoken as a first language in some areas of the country, known as the Gaeltacht. Irish is the first official language, followed by English.

Ireland[a]
Éire (Irish)
Location of the  Republic of Ireland  (dark green)– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]
Location of the  Republic of Ireland  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Dublin
Official languages Irish
English
Ethnic groups (2016)
  • 82.2% White ethnicity / Irish nationality
  • 9.5% White ethnicity / Non-Irish nationality
  • 2.6% No ethnicity given
  • 1.7% Non-Chinese Asian ethnicity (Irish nationality) / Non-Chinese Asian (Non-Irish nationality)
  • 1.5% Other ethnic group
  • 1.2% Black African ethnicity (Irish nationality) / Black African ethnicity (Non-Irish nationality)
  • 0.7% Irish Traveller
  • 0.4% Chinese ethnicity (Irish nationality) / Chinese ethnicity (Non-Irish nationality)
  • 0.1% Non-African Black ethnicity (Irish nationality) / Non-African Black ethnicity (Non-Irish nationality)
Demonym Irish
Government Unitary
parliamentary republic
Michael D. Higgins
Leo Varadkar
Joan Burton
Legislature Oireachtas
Seanad Éireann
Dáil Éireann
Independence from the United Kingdom
24 April 1916
21 January 1919
6 December 1922
29 December 1937
18 April 1949
Area
• Total
70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) (120th)
• Water (%)
2.00
Population
• 2011 census
4,581,269 (119th)
• Density
65.2/km2 (168.9/sq mi) (142nd)
GDP (PPP) 2010 none estimate
• Total
$172.345 billion[1] (None)
• Per capita
$38,549[1]
GDP (nominal) 2010 estimate
• Total
$204.261 billion[1]
• Per capita
$45,688[1]
HDI (2011) Steady 0.908[2]
very high · 7th
Currency Euro ()Prior to 2002, Ireland used the punt (Irish pound) as its circulated currency. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in 1999. (EUR)
Time zone WET (UTC+0)
• Summer (DST)
IST (WEST) (UTC+1)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the left
Calling code 353
ISO 3166 code IE
Internet TLD .ie[b]
a. ^  Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland declares that the name of the state is Ireland; Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares that the description of the state is the Republic of Ireland.[3]
b. ^  The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Several hundred years ago, the English took over the country and made it part of the United Kingdom in 1801. Ireland left the United Kingdom in 1922 and has been an independent country since then.

PoliticsEdit

The head of State, the President, is elected for seven years by the adult citizens. The same president can only be elected twice (14 years). Most of the president's tasks are representing and ceremonial ones. The president has little power over the government.

Ireland is a democracy and people vote for their representatives. The Taoiseach (equivalent to a prime minister) is selected by the parliament. The Taoiseach is usually the head of the biggest party.

The Oireachtas (equivalent to the parliament) consists of the Dáil Éireann (the lower House) and the Seanad (the 'upper House'). The system is similar to that of France or the United States, except that the President is not an executive.

The main political parties in Ireland are Fine Gael 25%, Sinn Féin 22%, Fianna Fail 18%, the Labour Party 7% and others, ref RED C poll 29 th June 2014.

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Ireland". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 29 April 2011. 
  2. "Human Development Report 2011" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  3. John Coakley (20 August 2009). Politics in the Republic of Ireland. Taylor & Francis. p. 76. ISBN 9780415476720. Retrieved 2 May 2011. 

ireann]] (the lower House) and the Seanad (the