Republic of Ireland
Ireland (Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (listen)) is a European country on the island of Ireland. It is a member of the European Union. The country is sometimes called the Republic of Ireland in order to distinguish between the territory of the Irish state and island proper, but Ireland is its official name. It covers about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The other sixth is called Northern Ireland, which is still part of the United Kingdom. The republic's capital is Dublin. Cork is the second largest city in the country and the third largest on the island of Ireland. The population of Ireland is 4.6 million. English is the main language spoken. The Irish language is widely taught in all schools, and it is still spoken as a first language in some areas of the country, known as the Gaeltacht. Irish is the first official language, followed by English.
|Anthem: "Amhrán na bhFiann"|
(English: "The Soldiers' Song")
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary parliamentary republic|
|Michael D. Higgins|
|Stages of independence |
from the United Kingdom
|24 April 1916|
|21 January 1919|
|6 December 1921|
|6 December 1922|
|29 December 1937|
|18 April 1949|
|70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) (118th)|
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
|70.8/km2 (183.4/sq mi) (113th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$412.797 billion (46th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
|$384.940 billion (32nd)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2018)|| 28.9|
low · 23rd
|HDI (2018)|| 0.942|
very high · 3rd
|Currency||Euro (€)[note 1] (EUR)|
|Time zone||UTC (GMT)|
• Summer (DST)
|ISO 3166 code||IE|
Several hundred years ago, the English took over the country and made it part of the United Kingdom in 1801. After many years of revolution, Ireland gained its independence from the United Kingdom in 1922 and has been an independent country since then. It was a neutral country during World War II.
The state extends over an area of about five-sixths (70,273 km2 or 27,133 sq mi) of the island of Ireland (84,421 km2 or 32,595 sq mi), with Northern Ireland being the rest.
Ireland is one of the countries in Europe with the least forests. Today, only about 10% of Ireland is covered with forests.
The total land area dedicated to farming is 64%.
The head of State, the President, is elected for seven years by the adult citizens. The same president can only be elected twice (14 years). Most of the president's tasks are representing and ceremonial ones. The president has little power over the government.
The Oireachtas (equivalent to the parliament) consists of the Dáil Éireann (the lower House) and the Seanad (the 'upper House'). The system is similar to that of France or the United States, except that the President is not an executive.
The Local Government Act 1898 is the founding document of the present system of local government, while the Twentieth Amendment to the constitution of 1999 given for its constitutional recognition. The twenty-six traditional counties of Ireland are not always related to governmental divisions although they are usually used as a geographical frame of reference by the population of Ireland. Below this (with the exception of the Dublin Region and the three city councils) are municipal districts.
- "Official Languages Act 2003". Office of the Attorney-General. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- "CSO Census 2016 Chapter 6 – Ethnicity and Irish Travellers" (PDF). Retrieved 28 April 2017.
- "Population and migration estimates April 2020". 22 August 2020.
- "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
- "Human Development Report 2019". United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
- Coakley, John (20 August 2009). Politics in the Republic of Ireland. Taylor & Francis. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-415-47672-0. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- Prior to 2002, Ireland used the punt (Irish pound) as its circulated currency. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in 1999.