Republic of Ireland

sovereign state in northwestern Europe covering five-sixths of the island of Ireland

Ireland (Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (About this soundlisten)), also known as the Republic of Ireland is a European country on the island of Ireland. It is a member of the European Union. The country is sometimes called the Republic of Ireland in order to distinguish between the territory of the Irish state and island proper, but Ireland is its official name. It covers about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The other sixth is called Northern Ireland, which is still part of the United Kingdom. The republic's capital is Dublin. Cork is the second largest city in the country and the third largest on the island of Ireland. The population of Ireland is 4.6 million. English is the main language spoken. The Irish language is widely taught in all schools, and it is still spoken as a first language in some areas of the country, known as the Gaeltacht. Irish is the first official language, followed by English.

Ireland[a]

Éire  (Irish)
Anthem: "Amhrán na bhFiann"
(English: "The Soldiers' Song")
Location of  Ireland  (dark green) – on the European continent  (green & dark grey) – in the European Union  (green)
Location of  Ireland  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Capital
and largest city
Dublin
53°20.65′N 6°16.05′W / 53.34417°N 6.26750°W / 53.34417; -6.26750Coordinates: 53°N 8°W / 53°N 8°W / 53; -8
Official languages
Ethnic groups
(2016[2])
  • 82.2% White Irish
  • 9.5% Other White
  • 2.6% Not stated
  • 2.1% Asian Irish / Other Asian
  • 1.5% Other ethn.
  • 1.2% Black Irish / Black African
  • 0.7% Irish Traveller
  • 0.1% Other Black
Religion
(2016)
Demonym(s)Irish
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Michael D. Higgins
• Taoiseach
Micheál Martin
• Tánaiste
Leo Varadkar
Frank Clarke
LegislatureOireachtas
Seanad
Dáil
Stages of independence 
24 April 1916
21 January 1919
6 December 1921
6 December 1922
29 December 1937
18 April 1949
Area
• Total
70,273 km2 (27,133 sq mi) (118th)
• Water (%)
2.00
Population
• 2020 estimate
Increase 4,977,400[3] (124th)
• Density
70.8/km2 (183.4/sq mi) (113th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $412.797 billion[4] (46th)
• Per capita
Increase $86,988[4] (4th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
Increase $384.940 billion[4] (32nd)
• Per capita
Decrease $77,771[4] (4th)
Gini (2018)Positive decrease 28.9[5]
low · 23rd
HDI (2018)Increase 0.942[6]
very high · 3rd
CurrencyEuro ()[note 1] (EUR)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+1 (IST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+353
ISO 3166 codeIE
Internet TLD.ie[c]
  1. ^ Article 4 of the Constitution of Ireland declares that the name of the state is Ireland; Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares that Republic of Ireland is "the description of the State".[7]
  2. ^ Also the sole national language, as per the Section 2 of the Official Languages Act 2003.
  3. ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

HistoryEdit

Several hundred years ago, the English took over the country and made it part of the United Kingdom in 1801. Ireland left the United Kingdom in 1922 and has been an independent country since then. It was a neutral country during World War II.

PoliticsEdit

The head of State, the President, is elected for seven years by the adult citizens. The same president can only be elected twice (14 years). Most of the president's tasks are representing and ceremonial ones. The president has little power over the government.

Ireland is a democracy and people vote for their representatives. The Taoiseach (equivalent to a prime minister) is selected by the parliament. The Taoiseach is usually the head of the biggest party.

The Oireachtas (equivalent to the parliament) consists of the Dáil Éireann (the lower House) and the Seanad (the 'upper House'). The system is similar to that of France or the United States, except that the President is not an executive.

The main political parties in Ireland are Fine Gael 25%, Sinn Féin 22%, Fianna Fail 18%, the Labour Party 7% and others, ref RED C poll 29 th June 2014.

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Official Languages Act 2003". Office of the Attorney-General. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
  2. "CSO Census 2016 Chapter 6 – Ethnicity and Irish Travellers" (PDF). Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  3. "Population and migration estimates April 2020". 22 August 2020.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  5. "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  6. "Human Development Report 2019" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  7. Coakley, John (20 August 2009). Politics in the Republic of Ireland. Taylor & Francis. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-415-47672-0. Retrieved 2 May 2011.

Notes

  1. Prior to 2002, Ireland used the punt (Irish pound) as its circulated currency. The euro was introduced as an accounting currency in 1999.