Coordinates: 42°00′N 43°30′E / 42.000°N 43.500°E
Georgia is a country in the Caucasus region of Eastern Europe. It is situated on the coast of the Black Sea. The country borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia and Turkey. It is largely encircled by the Greater and Lesser Caucasus mountain ranges. During 1918–1921, and 1991–1995 its full name was the Republic of Georgia. Since 1995 it is Georgia, as written in the Constitution. It was part of the Soviet Union between 1921 and 1991, but now it is an independent republic. The capital city is Tbilisi. Almost 4 million people live there.
"Strength is in Unity"
and largest city
41°43′N 44°47′E / 41.717°N 44.783°E
|Official languages||Georgian (nationwide)|
Abkhaz (Abkhazian AR)
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary parliamentary republic|
|13th c. BC – 580 AD|
12 September 1801
26 May 1918
|25 February 1921|
• Independence from the Soviet Union
9 April 1991
25 December 1991
|24 August 1995|
|69,700 km2 (26,900 sq mi) (119th)|
• 2022 estimate
• 2014 census
|57.6/km2 (149.2/sq mi) (137th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2021 estimate|
|$61.58 billion[a] (110th)|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
|$17.85 billion[a] (124th)|
• Per capita
|Gini (2020)|| 34.5[a]|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.812[a]|
very high · 61st
|Currency||Georgian lari (₾) (GEL)|
|Time zone||UTC+4 (Georgia Time GET)|
|ISO 3166 code||GE|
|Internet TLD||.ge, .გე|
The Georgians are an ancient people. Their capital Tbilisi was founded around AD 400, by the king Vakhtang I of Iberia. Western Georgia was part of the Roman Empire before then. The Arabs captured it in 635 AD. The culture continued and flourished through trade.
In the 900s Arab influence diminished in Caucasia. In 1008 Kingdom of Georgia was formed. It was the major country in the region until the Mongol Empire invaded it in 1223. Georgia was part of the Mongol Empire for a century on and off until 1334, when King Giorgi V took over. In the 1400s Georgia dissolved into several principalities. In the 1500s the Persians invaded Eastern Georgia four times from 1541 to 1544. In 1555 the Kings of Kartli ruled through the will of the Persian Shahs.
In 1783 The treaty of Georgievsk was signed between Catherine the Great of Russia and King Heraclius II, giving Russia the power to protect Georgia. Then, in 1798 the Persians burned Tbilisi to the ground.
From 1811 to 1918 Georgia was under the Tsar of Russia. Their culture survived intact. From 1918 to 1921 Georgia was independent, and then was part of the Soviet Union.
In 1991 most people from Georgia voted to be a free nation again, and Georgia declared their independence from the Soviet Union. Newly established Republic of Georgia saw bloody Civil War resulting in downfall of first-ever president of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Georgia was also involved in War in Abkhazia. There was a rough patch between 1994 and 1995 when the economy was poor, although Georgia saw significant improvements in last few years. Now Georgia is applying to NATO and European Union.
In 2008 Georgia was involved in the 2008 South Ossetia war.
Georgia is next to the countries of Russia, Turkey, Armenia and Azerbaijan. It also has a coast on the Black Sea. It is at the edge of Europe and Asia.
Georgia has many mountains. Its highest point is 5,193 m above sea level. The mountains running through Georgia are called the Caucasus Mountains.
The highest mountain in Georgia is Mount Shkhara at 5,193 m. The coastline of Georgia is 310 km long. Georgia has about 25,000 rivers. The largest river is the Mtkvari.
Georgia is divided into 9 regions, 1 city, and 2 autonomous republics. These in turn are divided into 67 districts and 12 self-governing cities.
The region of Abkhazia declared independence in 1999. South Ossetia is officially known by Georgia as the Tskinvali region. Georgia considers both regions as occupied by Russia.
|Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti||Ambrolauri||4,990||32,089||6.43|
About 4 million people live in Georgia. About 1.2 million live in Tbilisi. People from Georgia are called Georgians. Most of them speak Georgian as their first language, though some people also speak Azerbaijani, Armenian, Russian or other languages.
Georgians use three alphabets/scripts, Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli, with Asomtavruli being the very first Georgian Script, which was said to be invented by King Pharnavaz I of Iberia
The most famous person to have come from Georgia is Josef Stalin.
Most Georgians are Christians, but there are some Muslims and Jews as well.
The currency of Georgia is called the lari.
- ↑ "Article 8", Constitution of Georgia. In Abkhazian AR, also Abkhazian.
- ↑ "Constitution of Georgia" (PDF). Parliament of Georgia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2017.
- ↑ "საქართველოს მოსახლეობის საყოველთაო აღწერის საბოლოო შედეგები" (PDF). National Statistics Office of Georgia. 28 April 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
- ↑ "Demographic Portal". Retrieved 7 May 2022.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 "2014 General Population Census Main Results General Information — National Statistics Office of Georgia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2021". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
- ↑ "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Georgia". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Archived from the original on 20 July 2018. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- ↑ "Human Development Report 2020" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ↑ "Living conditions". GeoStat. Archived from the original on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- ↑ "Registry of Municipalities". National Agency of Public Registry. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 23 January 2017.
- ↑ "Regions and territories: Abkhazia". BBC News. 8 February 2011. Archived from the original on 20 April 2010. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- ↑ Abkhazia, S. Ossetia Formally Declared Occupied Territory. Archived 3 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Civil Georgia. 28 August 2008.
- Full information about (country) Georgia (English, German, Russian, Georgian)
- Friends of Georgia Archived 21 March 2004 at the Wayback Machine (Friends of Georgia International Foundation Website, including information on History, Culture, Gastronomy, News, etc.)