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capital of England and the United Kingdom
London Boroughs labelled with key.png
Borough Districts
Barking & Dagenham (E) Becontree, Becontree Heath, Castle Green, Creekmouth, Marks Gate, Rush Green
Barnet (N) Barnet Gate, Brunswick Park, Childs Hill, Cockfosters, Colney Hatch, Friern Barnet, Grahame Park, the Hale, Hampstead Garden Suburb, Monken Hadley, Muswell Hill, Oakleigh Park, Osidge, Totteridge, Woodside Park
Bexley (E) Albany Park, Barnehurst, Barnes Cray, Belvedere, Blackfen, Crook Log, Crossness, Falconwood, Foots Cray, Lamorbey, Lessness Heath, Longlands, North End, Northumberland Heath, Ruxley, Slade Green, Thamesmead, Upton, West Heath
Brent (W) Alperton, Brent Park, Brondesbury, Brondesbury Park, Church End, Dollis Hill, Kensal Green, Kenton, Park Royal, Queensbury, Stonebridge, Sudbury, Tokyngton
Bromley (S) Anerley, Aperfield, Bickley, Biggin Hill, Chelsfield, Chislehurst, Coney Hall, Crofton, Cudham, Downe, Downham, Eden Park, Elmers End, Elmstead, Farnborough, Goddington, Green Street Green, Hayes, Keston, Leaves Green, Locksbottom, Maypole, Mottingham, Park Langley, Plaistow, Pratts Bottom, St Mary Cray, St Pauls Cray, Shortlands, Southborough, Sundridge, Sydenham
Camden (C) Agar Town, Belsize Park, Bloomsbury, Chalk Farm, Chinatown, Dartmouth Park, Fortune Green, Frognal, Gospel Oak, Haverstock, Highgate, Primrose Hill, Soho, St Giles, St Pancras, Somers Town, Tufnell Park
City of London (C) Aldersgate, Aldgate, Bassishaw, Billingsgate, Bishopsgate, Bread Street, Bridge, Broad Street, Candlewick, Castle Baynard, Coleman Street, Cordwainer, Cornhill, Cripplegate, Dowgate, Farringdon, Langbourn, Lime Street, Portstoken, Queenhithe, Tower, Vintry, Walbrook
Croydon (S) Ashburton, Beddington, Broad Green, Coombe, Forrestdale, Hamsey Green, Kenley, Monks Orchard, Polards Hill, Purley Oaks, Roundshaw, Sanderstead, Selhurst, Shirley, Waddon, Woodcote, Woodside, Whyteleafe
Ealing (W) Dormers Wells, Horsenden Hill, Montpelier, Northfields, Northolt, Perivale, Pitshanger, Twyford
Enfield (N) Arnos Grove, Botany Bay, Bowes Park, Brimsdown, Bulls Cross, Bush Hill Park, Clay Hill, Crews Hill, Edmonton, Enfield Chase, Enfield Highway, Enfield Island Village, Enfield Lock, Enfield Wash, Forty Hill, Freezywater, Grange Park, Hadley Wood, Oakwood, Ponders End, Winchmore Hill, Worlds End
Greenwich (E) Abbey Wood, Blackheath, Charlton, Deptford, Horn Park, Kidbrooke, Lee, Shooters Hill
Hackney (E) Cambridge Heath, Clapton, De Beauvoir Town, Hackney Central, Hackney Downs, Hackney Marshes, Hackney Wick, Haggerston, Homerton, Hoxton, Kingland, Lea Bridge, London Fields, Manor House, Newington Green, Shackwell, Shoreditch, Stamford Hill
Hammersmith & Fulham (W) Old Oak Common, Parsons Green, Sands End, Walham Green, White City
Haringey (N) Alexandra Park, Bounds Green, Broadwater Farm, Fortis Green, Hornsey, Little Russia, Noel Park, Northumberland Park, St Anns, Stroud Green, Tottenham
Harrow (W) Belmont, Canons Park, Greenhill, Harrow on the Hill, Harrow Weald, Hatch End, Headstone, Little Stanmore, Roxeth
Havering (E) Ardleigh Green, Chase Cross, Coldharbour, Cranham, Emerson Park, Frog Island, Gidea Park, Hacton, Harold Park, Harold Wood, Havering atte Bower, Heath Park, Noak Hill, Ockendon, Rise Park, Wennington
Hillingdon (W) Cowley, Cranford, Harefield, Harlington, Harmondsworth, Heathrow, Ickenham, Longford, Sipson, Yeading
Hounslow (W) Bedfont, Brentford End, Feltham, Grove Park, Gunnersbury, Hanworth, Hatton, Heston, Isleworth, Lampton, Osterley, Spring Grove, Woodlands
Islington (C) Barnsbury, Canonbury, Clerkenwell, Finsbury, Highbury, Holloway, Mildmay, Newington Green, Pentonville, St Lukes
Kensington & Chelsea (C) Brompton, Earls Court, Holland Park, Ladbroke Grove, Notting Hill
Kingston upon Thames (S) Berrylands, Canbury, Chessington, Kingston Vale, Motspur Park, Norbiton
Lambeth (C) Clapham, Clapham Park, Dulwich, Gipsy Hill, Herne Hill, Kennington, Loughborough Junction, the Oval, Streatham Hill, Waterloo
Lewisham (E) Bell Green, Bellingham, Brockley, Chinbrook, Crofton Park, Hatcham, Hither Green, Honor Oak, Honar Oak Park, Ladywell, New Cross Gate, Perry Vale, St Johns, Southend, Syndenham Hill, Telegraph Hill
Merton (S) Barnes, Bushey Mead, Colliers Wood, Copse Hill, Cottenham Park, Merton Park, Morton Park, Motspur Park, Phipps Bridge, Raynes Park, St Helier, Summerstown, Wimbledon Park
Newham (E) Custom House, Cyprus, East Village, Little Ilford, Manor Park, Maryland, Mill Meads, Plaistow, Silvertown, Stratford City, Stratford Marsh, Stratford New Town, Temple Mills, Upton, Wallend, West Ham
Redbridge (E) Aldborough Hatch, Aldersbrook, Clayhall, Cranbrook, Fairlop, Fullwell Cross, Goodmayes, Hainault, Little Heath, Loxford, Monkhams, Newbury Park, Roding, Seven Kings, Snaresbrook, Valentines, Woodford Bridge, Woodford Green
Richmond upon Thames (W) Castlenau, Fulwell, Ham, Hampton, Hampton Hill, Hampton Wick, Kew, Mortlake, Petersham, St Margarets, Strawberry Hill
Southwark (C) Bankside, Bermondsey, Borough, Denmark Hill, Dulwich Village, Forest Hill, Herne Hill, Newington, Nunhead, Peckham Rye, Rotherhithe, Surrey Quays, Walworth
Sutton (S) Belmont, Benhilton, Little Woodcote, St Helier
Tower Hamlets (E) Blackwall, Bow, BowCommon, Coldharbour, Cubitt Town, Docklands, Fish Island, Globe Town, Hackney Wick, Isle of Dogs, Leamouth, Limehouse, Mile End, Millwall, Old Ford, Poplar, Ratcliff, St George in the East, Shadwell, Smithfield, Spitalfields, Stepney, Wapping
Waltham Forest (E) Cann Hall, Cathall, Chapel End, Endlebury, Forest, Grove Green, Hale End, Hatch Lane, High Street, Higham Hill, Highams Park, Hoe Street, Larkswood, Markhouse, Valley, Whipps Cross
Wandsworth (S) Earlsfield, Furzedown, Nine Elms, Putney Vale, Rochampton, Southfields, Streatham Park
Westminster (C) Adelphi, Aldwych, Bayswater, Belgravia, Devils Acre, Fitzrovia, Hyde Park, Kensal Town, Lisson Grove, Marylebone, Mayfair, Millbank, Pimlico, Portman Estate, Queens Park, St James, Temple

London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom. 8.63 million people live in London,[2] which is on the River Thames.

The Palace of Westminster on the River Thames
London shown in the UK
London shown in the UK
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region Greater London
Districts City & 32 London boroughs
Settled by Romans as Londinium ca. AD 50
 • Regional authority Greater London Authority
 • Regional assembly London Assembly
 • Mayor Sadiq Khan
 • HQ City Hall
 • UK Parliament
 - London Assembly
 - European Parliament
74 constituencies
14 constituencies
London constituency
 • City 1.00 sq mi (2.6 km2)
 • Greater London 609 sq mi (1,580 km2)
Elevation[1] 79 ft (24 m)
Population (mid-2006 est)
 • Urban 9.7 million
(Greater London Urban Area)
 • Metro 13–14 million
 • Density 8,215/sq mi (3,172/km2)
 • Greater London 7,512,400
 • Greater London density 12,331/sq mi (4,761/km2)
Time zone GMT (UTC0)
 • Summer (DST) BST (UTC+1)

London is the biggest city in western Europe, and the world's largest financial centre.[3][4][5]

London was founded by the Romans in AD 43 and called Londinium. London is also known as Lunnainn in Scottish Gaelic,[6] Llundain in Welsh and Londain in Irish.

For a long time, London was a small city. All its people lived inside the walls that were built by the Romans. This area is still called the City of London. There were many villages around the city. Gradually, more people came to live there. Then, step by step, the villages joined together into one huge city.

The city has a huge network of transport systems. The Victorians built a number of railway systems in the mid-19th century. Their main stations are in London, and the lines go to every corner of Great Britain. There were originally five major companies, which were merged into a national rail network in modern times.

There is also the world's first underground railway system, London Underground, which is the main way commuters get into London. There are five airports, though only one is actually in London (London City Airport). There is the London end of the London–Birmingham canal, which was important to the industrial 19th century.

Most people in London are British. However, London also has many immigrants. These people come from many different countries. They speak many different languages and have different religions and cultures. There are also many people from different countries who stay in London on business. Many people visit London as tourists. They may see the famous "Sights of London". These sights include palaces, churches and museums.

London is one of the world's most important cities for business, finance, and politics. It is also important for culture: media, entertainment, fashion, and art.



The Romans built a city called Londinium on the River Thames in AD 43. The name Londinium (and then 'London') came from the Celtic language of the Ancient Britons. In the year AD 61, Queen Boudica (a British Celtic queen) and her army destroyed the city. Boudica killed herself when Romans trapped her. Then the Romans rebuilt London. London became an important trading city. After the Romans left Britain, few people lived in the city for a long time. This is because the Anglo-Saxons liked living in the countryside. In the 9th century, more people started living there again. It became the largest city in England. However, it did not become the capital city of England until the 12th century.

After the railways were built, London grew very big. Greater London has 33 London Boroughs and a mayor. The old City of London is only a square mile in size but has its own Lord Mayor.

Another famous old part of Greater London is Westminster, which was always a different city from the City of London. In Westminster is Westminster Abbey (a cathedral), The Palace of Westminster (the Houses of Parliament, with Big Ben), and 10 Downing Street (where the Prime Minister lives).



London has an oceanic, or temperate climate. It is not usually very hot or cold. It is often cloudy.

Climate data for Heathrow Airport
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
Average low °C (°F) 2.3
Rainfall mm (inches) 55.2
Source: Met Office


The Millennium Dome, seen from the River Thames.
A panorama of modern London, taken from the Golden Gallery of Saint Paul’s Cathedral


The Tower Bridge in London

London has twin and sister city agreements with these cities:

London also has a "partnership" agreement with Tokyo, Japan.

London UndergroundEdit

The London Underground is a system of electric trains which are in London, United Kingdom. It is the oldest underground railway in the world. It started running in 1863 as the Metropolitan Railway. After the opening the system was copied in many other cities, for example New York and Madrid. Even though it is called the Underground about half of it is above the ground. The "Tube" is a slang name for the London Underground, because the tunnels for some of the lines are round tubes running through the ground. The Underground has got 274 stations and over 408 km of track. From 2006–2007 over 1 billion passengers used the underground.


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