|Barking & Dagenham (E)||Becontree, Becontree Heath, Castle Green, Creekmouth, Marks Gate, Rush Green|
|Barnet (N)||Barnet Gate, Brunswick Park, Childs Hill, Cockfosters, Colney Hatch, Friern Barnet, Grahame Park, the Hale, Hampstead Garden Suburb, Monken Hadley, Muswell Hill, Oakleigh Park, Osidge, Totteridge, Woodside Park|
|Bexley (E)||Albany Park, Barnehurst, Barnes Cray, Belvedere, Blackfen, Crook Log, Crossness, Falconwood, Foots Cray, Lamorbey, Lessness Heath, Longlands, North End, Northumberland Heath, Ruxley, Slade Green, Thamesmead, Upton, West Heath|
|Brent (W)||Alperton, Brent Park, Brondesbury, Brondesbury Park, Church End, Dollis Hill, Kensal Green, Kenton, Park Royal, Queensbury, Stonebridge, Sudbury, Tokyngton|
|Bromley (S)||Anerley, Aperfield, Bickley, Biggin Hill, Chelsfield, Chislehurst, Coney Hall, Crofton, Cudham, Downe, Downham, Eden Park, Elmers End, Elmstead, Farnborough, Goddington, Green Street Green, Hayes, Keston, Leaves Green, Locksbottom, Maypole, Mottingham, Park Langley, Plaistow, Pratts Bottom, St Mary Cray, St Pauls Cray, Shortlands, Southborough, Sundridge, Sydenham|
|Camden (C)||Agar Town, Belsize Park, Bloomsbury, Chalk Farm, Chinatown, Dartmouth Park, Fortune Green, Frognal, Gospel Oak, Haverstock, Highgate, Primrose Hill, Soho, St Giles, St Pancras, Somers Town, Tufnell Park|
|City of London (C)||Aldersgate, Aldgate, Bassishaw, Billingsgate, Bishopsgate, Bread Street, Bridge, Broad Street, Candlewick, Castle Baynard, Coleman Street, Cordwainer, Cornhill, Cripplegate, Dowgate, Farringdon, Langbourn, Lime Street, Portstoken, Queenhithe, Tower, Vintry, Walbrook|
|Croydon (S)||Ashburton, Beddington, Broad Green, Coombe, Forrestdale, Hamsey Green, Kenley, Monks Orchard, Polards Hill, Purley Oaks, Roundshaw, Sanderstead, Selhurst, Shirley, Waddon, Woodcote, Woodside, Whyteleafe|
|Ealing (W)||Dormers Wells, Horsenden Hill, Montpelier, Northfields, Northolt, Perivale, Pitshanger, Twyford|
|Enfield (N)||Arnos Grove, Botany Bay, Bowes Park, Brimsdown, Bulls Cross, Bush Hill Park, Clay Hill, Crews Hill, Edmonton, Enfield Chase, Enfield Highway, Enfield Island Village, Enfield Lock, Enfield Wash, Forty Hill, Freezywater, Grange Park, Hadley Wood, Oakwood, Ponders End, Winchmore Hill, Worlds End|
|Greenwich (E)||Abbey Wood, Blackheath, Charlton, Deptford, Horn Park, Kidbrooke, Lee, Shooters Hill|
|Hackney (E)||Cambridge Heath, Clapton, De Beauvoir Town, Hackney Central, Hackney Downs, Hackney Marshes, Hackney Wick, Haggerston, Homerton, Hoxton, Kingland, Lea Bridge, London Fields, Manor House, Newington Green, Shackwell, Shoreditch, Stamford Hill|
|Hammersmith & Fulham (W)||Old Oak Common, Parsons Green, Sands End, Walham Green, White City|
|Haringey (N)||Alexandra Park, Bounds Green, Broadwater Farm, Fortis Green, Hornsey, Little Russia, Noel Park, Northumberland Park, St Anns, Stroud Green, Tottenham|
|Harrow (W)||Belmont, Canons Park, Greenhill, Harrow on the Hill, Harrow Weald, Hatch End, Headstone, Little Stanmore, Roxeth|
|Havering (E)||Ardleigh Green, Chase Cross, Coldharbour, Cranham, Emerson Park, Frog Island, Gidea Park, Hacton, Harold Park, Harold Wood, Havering atte Bower, Heath Park, Noak Hill, Ockendon, Rise Park, Wennington|
|Hillingdon (W)||Cowley, Cranford, Harefield, Harlington, Harmondsworth, Heathrow, Ickenham, Longford, Sipson, Yeading|
|Hounslow (W)||Bedfont, Brentford End, Feltham, Grove Park, Gunnersbury, Hanworth, Hatton, Heston, Isleworth, Lampton, Osterley, Spring Grove, Woodlands|
|Islington (C)||Barnsbury, Canonbury, Clerkenwell, Finsbury, Highbury, Holloway, Mildmay, Newington Green, Pentonville, St Lukes|
|Kensington & Chelsea (C)||Brompton, Earls Court, Holland Park, Ladbroke Grove, Notting Hill|
|Kingston upon Thames (S)||Berrylands, Canbury, Chessington, Kingston Vale, Motspur Park, Norbiton|
|Lambeth (C)||Clapham, Clapham Park, Dulwich, Gipsy Hill, Herne Hill, Kennington, Loughborough Junction, the Oval, Streatham Hill, Waterloo|
|Lewisham (E)||Bell Green, Bellingham, Brockley, Chinbrook, Crofton Park, Hatcham, Hither Green, Honor Oak, Honar Oak Park, Ladywell, New Cross Gate, Perry Vale, St Johns, Southend, Syndenham Hill, Telegraph Hill|
|Merton (S)||Barnes, Bushey Mead, Colliers Wood, Copse Hill, Cottenham Park, Merton Park, Morton Park, Motspur Park, Phipps Bridge, Raynes Park, St Helier, Summerstown, Wimbledon Park|
|Newham (E)||Custom House, Cyprus, East Village, Little Ilford, Manor Park, Maryland, Mill Meads, Plaistow, Silvertown, Stratford City, Stratford Marsh, Stratford New Town, Temple Mills, Upton, Wallend, West Ham|
|Redbridge (E)||Aldborough Hatch, Aldersbrook, Clayhall, Cranbrook, Fairlop, Fullwell Cross, Goodmayes, Hainault, Little Heath, Loxford, Monkhams, Newbury Park, Roding, Seven Kings, Snaresbrook, Valentines, Woodford Bridge, Woodford Green|
|Richmond upon Thames (W)||Castlenau, Fulwell, Ham, Hampton, Hampton Hill, Hampton Wick, Kew, Mortlake, Petersham, St Margarets, Strawberry Hill|
|Southwark (C)||Bankside, Bermondsey, Borough, Denmark Hill, Dulwich Village, Forest Hill, Herne Hill, Newington, Nunhead, Peckham Rye, Rotherhithe, Surrey Quays, Walworth|
|Sutton (S)||Belmont, Benhilton, Little Woodcote, St Helier|
|Tower Hamlets (E)||Blackwall, Bow, BowCommon, Coldharbour, Cubitt Town, Docklands, Fish Island, Globe Town, Hackney Wick, Isle of Dogs, Leamouth, Limehouse, Mile End, Millwall, Old Ford, Poplar, Ratcliff, St George in the East, Shadwell, Smithfield, Spitalfields, Stepney, Wapping|
|Waltham Forest (E)||Cann Hall, Cathall, Chapel End, Endlebury, Forest, Grove Green, Hale End, Hatch Lane, High Street, Higham Hill, Highams Park, Hoe Street, Larkswood, Markhouse, Valley, Whipps Cross|
|Wandsworth (S)||Earlsfield, Furzedown, Nine Elms, Putney Vale, Rochampton, Southfields, Streatham Park|
|Westminster (C)||Adelphi, Aldwych, Bayswater, Belgravia, Devils Acre, Fitzrovia, Hyde Park, Kensal Town, Lisson Grove, Marylebone, Mayfair, Millbank, Pimlico, Portman Estate, Queens Park, St James, Temple|
London shown in the UK
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Districts||City & 32 London boroughs|
|Settled by Romans||as Londinium ca. AD 50|
|• Regional authority||Greater London Authority|
|• Regional assembly||London Assembly|
|• Mayor||Sadiq Khan|
|• HQ||City Hall|
| • UK Parliament
- London Assembly
- European Parliament
|• City||1.00 sq mi (2.6 km2)|
|• Greater London||609 sq mi (1,580 km2)|
|Elevation||79 ft (24 m)|
|Population (mid-2006 est)|
|• Urban||9.7 million
(Greater London Urban Area)
|• Metro||13–14 million|
|• Density||8,215/sq mi (3,172/km2)|
|• Greater London||7,512,400|
|• Greater London density||12,331/sq mi (4,761/km2)|
|Time zone||GMT (UTC0)|
|• Summer (DST)||BST (UTC+1)|
For a long time, London was a small city. All its people lived inside the walls that were built by the Romans. This area is still called the City of London. There were many villages around the city. Gradually, more people came to live there. Then, step by step, the villages joined together into one huge city.
The city has a huge network of transport systems. The Victorians built a number of railway systems in the mid-19th century. Their main stations are in London, and the lines go to every corner of Great Britain. There were originally five major companies, which were merged into a national rail network in modern times.
There is also the world's first underground railway system, London Underground, which is the main way commuters get into London. There are five airports, though only one is actually in London (London City Airport). There is the London end of the London–Birmingham canal, which was important to the industrial 19th century.
Most people in London are British. However, London also has many immigrants. These people come from many different countries. They speak many different languages and have different religions and cultures. There are also many people from different countries who stay in London on business. Many people visit London as tourists. They may see the famous "Sights of London". These sights include palaces, churches and museums.
The Romans built a city called Londinium on the River Thames in AD 43. The name Londinium (and then 'London') came from the Celtic language of the Ancient Britons. In the year AD 61, Queen Boudica (a British Celtic queen) and her army destroyed the city. Boudica killed herself when Romans trapped her. Then the Romans rebuilt London. London became an important trading city. After the Romans left Britain, few people lived in the city for a long time. This is because the Anglo-Saxons liked living in the countryside. In the 9th century, more people started living there again. It became the largest city in England. However, it did not become the capital city of England until the 12th century.
Another famous old part of Greater London is Westminster, which was always a different city from the City of London. In Westminster is Westminster Abbey (a cathedral), The Palace of Westminster (the Houses of Parliament, with Big Ben), and 10 Downing Street (where the Prime Minister lives).
- AD 43 - Londinium is founded by the Romans
- 61 - Londinium is sacked by Queen Boudica and the Iceni
- 100 - Londinium becomes the capital of Roman Britain
- 200 - The population is about 6,000
- 410 - The end of Roman rule in Britain
- 8th century - London is captured by Vikings
- 885 - King Alfred the Great recaptures the city and makes peace with the Viking leader Guthrum.
- 1045-50 - Westminster Abbey is rebuilt by Edward the Confessor who is buried there in January 1066.
- 1066 - William the Conqueror is crowned in Westminster Abbey.
- 1100 - The population is about 16,000.
- 1300 - The population of London has risen to 100,000.
- 1381 - The Peasants' Revolt – the first poll tax riots
- 1605 - The Gunpowder Plot is stopped
- 1665 - The Great Plague of London
- 1666 - The Great Fire of London
- 1780 - The Gordon Riots
- 1851 - The Great Exhibition held at the Crystal Palace
- 1908 - The Summer Olympic Games take place in London.
- 1940-1941 - London was bombed by Germany during World War II. This is known as The Blitz.
- 1948 - The Summer Olympic Games take place in London for the second time.
- 1966 - The Football World Cup final took place in London. It was won by England.
- 1990 - The Second Poll Tax Riots
- 2005 - The 7 July bombings on the London Underground and a bus. 52 people die and over 700 people are injured.
- 2012 - The Summer Olympic Games take place in London for a third time.
- 2017 - The 2017 Westminster attack on Westminster Bridge and Parliament Square. Five people are killed outside the Palace of Westminster including the attacker and a police officer. 40 more people were injured.
London has an oceanic, or temperate climate. It is not usually very hot or cold. It is often cloudy.
|Climate data for Heathrow Airport|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.1
|Average low °C (°F)||2.3
|Rainfall mm (inches)||55.2
|Source: Met Office|
London has twin and sister city agreements with these cities:
- Sister cities:
- Partner cities:
The London Underground is a system of electric trains which are in London, United Kingdom. It is the oldest underground railway in the world. It started running in 1863 as the Metropolitan Railway. After the opening the system was copied in many other cities, for example New York and Madrid. Even though it is called the Underground about half of it is above the ground. The "Tube" is a slang name for the London Underground, because the tunnels for some of the lines are round tubes running through the ground. The Underground has got 274 stations and over 408 km of track. From 2006–2007 over 1 billion passengers used the underground.
- "London, United Kingdom Forecast : Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport)" (online). http://www.wunderground.com/global/stations/03772.html. Retrieved 2007-03-16.
- "Population Growth in London, 1939–2015". London Datastore. Greater London Authority. January 2015. p. 2. https://files.datapress.com/london/dataset/population-change-1939-2015/historical%20population%201939-2015.pdf. Retrieved 2015-09-16.
- "Global Financial Centres 9". Z/Yen. 2011. http://www.zyen.com/GFCI/GFCI%209.pdf.
- ""World's most economically powerful cities".". Forbes. 15 July 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. http://www.forbes.com/2008/07/15/economic-growth-gdp-biz-cx_jz_0715powercities.html. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- "Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008". Mastercard. http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/insights/pdfs/2008/MCWW_WCoC-Report_2008.pdf.
- "London in Scottish Gaelic". Glosbe Dictionary website. http://glosbe.com/en/gd/London. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Beijing, London to be sister cities". China Daily, 11 April 2006. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2006-04/11/content_565439.htm. Retrieved 2006-6-6.
- "Sister City - London". nyc.gov. http://www.nyc.gov/html/unccp/scp/html/sc/london_main.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-03.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide about: London|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: London|
|Greater London • London • City of London|
London Boroughs: Barking and Dagenham • Barnet • Bexley • Brent • Bromley • Camden • Croydon • Ealing • Enfield • Greenwich • Hackney • Hammersmith and Fulham • Haringey • Harrow • Havering • Hillingdon • Hounslow • Islington • Kensington and Chelsea • Kingston • Lambeth • Lewisham • Merton • Newham • Redbridge • Richmond • Southwark • Sutton • Tower Hamlets • Waltham Forest • Wandsworth • Westminster