Abkhazia (Abkhazian: Аҧсны Apsny, Georgian: აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Абха́зия Abkhazia) is a disputed region and mostly unrecognized country on the eastern coast of the Black Sea. Since its declaration of independence from Georgia in 1991 during the Georgian–Abkhaz conflict, it has been ruled by the partially-recognized Republic of Abkhazia.
Republic of Abkhazia
Anthem: Аиааира (Abkhazian)
Map of Abkhazia
Location of Abkhazia
and largest city
|Official languages||Abkhaz, Russian1|
|Non-official languages||Armenian, Georgian, Mingrelian2|
|Partially recognised independence from Georgia and the Soviet Union|
• Georgian annulment of all Soviet-era laws and treaties
|20 June 1990|
• Declaration of sovereignty3
|25 August 1990|
• Georgian declaration of independence
|9 April 1991|
|26 December 1991|
• Reinstatement of 1925 Constitution
|23 July 1992|
|26 November 1994|
|3 October 1999|
• Act of state independence4
|12 October 1999|
|26 August 2008|
|8,432 km2 (3,256 sq mi)|
|Between 157,000 and 190,0006|
• 2015 census
|29/km2 (75.1/sq mi)|
|Currency||Russian ruble8 (RUB)|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK)|
Georgia believes Abkhazia is part of its territory and has listed the province, in its official subdivisions, as an autonomous republic (Georgian: აფხაზეთის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა, Abkhaz: Аҧснытәи Автономтәи Республика, Apsnitei Avtonomtei Respublika), bordering the region of Samegrelo-Zemo Svaneti to the east. On 28 August 2008, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution declaring Abkhazia a "Russian-occupied territory."
The Republic of Abkhazia, with Sukhumi as its capital, is recognized by Russia, Nicaragua, and the de facto independent republics of South Ossetia and Transnistria, while the European Union, OSCE, and NATO recognise Abkhazia as an integral part of the territory of Georgia.
The secessionist movement of the Abkhaz minority led to the Georgian–Abkhaz conflict. The War in Abkhazia resulted in a Georgian military defeat and the mass exodus and ethnic cleansing of the Georgian population from Abkhazia. In spite of the 1994 ceasefire accord and the ongoing UN-monitored and Russian-dominated CIS peacekeeping operation, the sovereignty dispute has not yet been resolved. This dispute remains a source of a conflict between Georgia and Russia.
- "Президент – Республики Абхазия".
- "UNPO: Abkhazia: Review of Events for the Year 1996". unpo.org.
- Olga Oliker, Thomas S. Szayna. Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus: Implications for the U.S. Army. Rand Corporation, 2003, ISBN 0833032607
- Abkhazia: ten years on. By Rachel Clogg, Conciliation Resources, 2001
- Medianews.ge. Training of military operations underway in Abkhazia, 21 August 2007
- Emmanuel Karagiannis. Energy and Security in the Caucasus. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0700714812
- GuardianUnlimited. Georgia up in arms over Olympic cash
- International Relations and Security Network. Kosovo wishes in Caucasus. By Simon Saradzhyan
- Resolution of the Parliament of Georgia declaring Abkhazia and South Ossetia occupied territories, 28 August 2008.
- "Abkhazia, S.Ossetia Formally Declared Occupied Territory. Civil Georgia". 2008-08-28.
- "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же". Newsru. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
- "West condemns Russia over Georgia". 26 August 2008 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
- "Scheffer 'Rejects' Russia's Move, Civil.ge, 26 August 2008".
- "CoE, PACE Chairs Condemn Russia's Move, Civil Georgia, 26 August 2008".
- "OSCE Chair Condemns Russia's Recognition of Abkhazia, S.Ossetia, Civil Georgia, 26 August 2008".
Media related to Abkhazia at Wikimedia Commonsinline