Russian administrative division in Georgia

Abkhazia [4] is an unrecognised country in the Caucauses.

Republic of Abkhazia
Аҧсны / Apsny (Abkhaz)
აფხაზეთი / Apkhazeti (Georgian)
Абхазия / Abkhaziya (Russian)
Flag of Abkhazia
Coat of arms of Abkhazia
Coat of arms
Anthem: Аиааира (Abkhaz)
Map of Abkhazia
Map of Abkhazia
Location of Abkhazia
Location of Abkhazia
and largest city
Official languagesAbkhaz, Russian1
Non-official languagesArmenian, Georgian, Mingrelian2
Demonym(s)Abkhaz, Abkhazian
GovernmentUnitary republic
• President
Aslan Bzhania
Badr Gunba
Alexander Ankvab
Partially recognised independence from Georgia and the Soviet Union[1][2][3]
• Georgian annulment of all Soviet-era laws and treaties
20 June 1990
• Declaration of sovereignty3
25 August 1990
• Georgian declaration of independence
9 April 1991
26 December 1991
• Reinstatement of 1925 Constitution
23 July 1992
26 November 1994
3 October 1999
• Act of state independence4
12 October 1999
26 August 2008
• Total
8,432 km2 (3,256 sq mi)
• Estimate
Between 157,000 and 190,0006
• 2015 census
• Density
29/km2 (75.1/sq mi)
CurrencyRussian ruble8 (RUB)
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK)
Driving sideright
  1. Russian has co-official status and widespread use by government and other institutions.
  2. Mingrelian is spoken largely in the Gali district.
  3. Anulled by the Georgian Soviet immediately after.
  4. Establishing retro-actively de jure independence since the 1992-1993 war.
  5. By Russia. Only since followed by Nicaragua.
  6. International Crisis Group 2006 estimate.
  7. Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 estimate.
  8. De facto currency, several commemorative coins in Abkhazian own currency, Abkhazian apsar (ru:Апсар) were issued.

The country fought a war with Georgia for its independence in 1991, the Georgian–Abkhaz conflict. Since its declaration of independence from Georgia in 1991, it has been ruled by the partly-recognized Republic of Abkhazia.[5][6][7][8][9][10]

Georgia believes Abkhazia is part of its territory and has listed the province, in its official subdivisions, as an autonomous republic On 28 August 2008, the Parliament of Georgia passed a resolution declaring Abkhazia a "Russian-occupied territory".[11][12]

The Republic of Abkhazia, with Sukhumi as its capital, is formally recognised by Russia and by Nicaragua, and the de facto independent republics of South Ossetia and Transnistria.[13] The European Union, OSCE, and NATO recognise Abkhazia as an integral part of the territory of Georgia.[14][15][16][17]

The secessionist movement of the Abkhaz minority led to the Georgian–Abkhaz conflict. The War in Abkhazia resulted in a Georgian military defeat and the mass exodus and ethnic cleansing of the Georgian population from Abkhazia.

There was a 1994 ceasefire agreement. There is a UN-monitored and Russian-dominated CIS peacekeeping operation. The sovereignty dispute has not been resolved. The dispute is a source of conflict between Georgia and Russia.



  1. "Президент – Республики Абхазия".
  2. "Карта сайта". Archived from the original on 2018-12-24. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  3. "UNPO: Abkhazia: Review of Events for the Year 1996". unpo.org.
  4. Abkhaz: Аҧсны Apsny, Georgian: აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Абха́зия Abkhazia
  5. Olga Oliker, Thomas S. Szayna. Faultlines of Conflict in Central Asia and the South Caucasus: Implications for the U.S. Army. Rand Corporation 2003. ISBN 978-0-8330-3260-7
  6. Abkhazia: ten years on. Archived 2012-02-05 at the Wayback Machine By Rachel Clogg, Conciliation Resources, 2001
  7. Medianews.ge. Training of military operations underway in Abkhazia Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine, 21 August 2007
  8. Emmanuel Karagiannis. Energy and Security in the Caucasus. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 978-0-7007-1481-0
  9. GuardianUnlimited. Georgia up in arms over Olympic cash
  10. International Relations and Security Network. Kosovo wishes in Caucasus. By Simon Saradzhyan
  11. Resolution of the Parliament of Georgia declaring Abkhazia and South Ossetia occupied territories, 28 August 2008.
  12. "Abkhazia, S.Ossetia Formally Declared Occupied Territory. Civil Georgia". 2008-08-28. Archived from the original on 2008-09-03. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  13. "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же". Newsru. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2008-08-26.
  14. "West condemns Russia over Georgia". 26 August 2008 – via news.bbc.co.uk.
  15. "Scheffer 'Rejects' Russia's Move, Civil.ge, 26 August 2008". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  16. "CoE, PACE Chairs Condemn Russia's Move, Civil Georgia, 26 August 2008". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
  17. "OSCE Chair Condemns Russia's Recognition of Abkhazia, S.Ossetia, Civil Georgia, 26 August 2008". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2018.

Other websites


  Media related to Abkhazia at Wikimedia Commonsinline