Transnistria (also called Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, PMR; Russian: Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, romanized: Pridnestrovskaya Moldavskaya Respublika), is a separatist country in Eastern Europe. This means that it claims to be a separate country from Moldova but this is not legally true. Most countries have no diplomatic relations with it.
Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Мы славим тебя, Приднестровье
My slavim tebya, Pridnestrovie
"We Sing the Praises of Transnistria"
and largest city
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|2 September 1990|
• Independence from Soviet Union declared
|25 August 1991|
• Succeeds the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic
|5 November 1991|
|2 March – 1 July 1992|
|4,163 km2 (1,607 sq mi)|
• Water (%)
• September 2023 estimate
|364,986 (Moldovan estimate)|
• 2015 census
|73.5/km2 (190.4/sq mi)|
|GDP (nominal)||2021 estimate|
• Per capita
|Currency||Transnistrian ruble (PRB)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
• Summer (DST)
Moldovans, Russians, and Ukrainians make up about a third of the population each. The capital and largest city is Tiraspol.
Transnistria was officially formed between 1990, when the Soviet government established the Pridnestrovien Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in that area in hopes that it would remain if Moldova became independent.
With the help of the Russian army, it defeated the Moldovan army in the War of Transnistria. There has been peace since 1992, but the Council of Europe calls Transnistria a "frozen conflict" area. Currently, no state recognises Transnistria and most countries agree that it is officially part of Moldova.
There is argument about whether Transnistria is really a country or not. It is recognized by three other unrecognized or partly recognized breakaway countries: Abkhazia, Artsakh, and South Ossetia. The area continues to claim independence, and acts independently over its territory with the help of peacekeeping forces from foreign countries. Many countries also think that Transnistria is a puppet state of Russia.
In a vote on 17 September 2006, 97% voted to be free from Moldova. This vote has not been accepted by Moldova, which calls the area the "Territory of the Left Bank of the Dniester".
The climate is humid continental with subtropical characteristics. Transnistria has warm summers and cool to cold winters. Precipitation is unvarying all year round, although with a slight increase in the summer months.
- "В ПМР российский флаг разрешили использовать наравне с государственным" (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 12 April 2017.
- Smoltczyk, Alexander (24 April 2014). "Hopes Rise in Transnistria of a Russian Annexation". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
The breakaway region has its own military, its own constitution, a national anthem (called "We Sing the Praises of Transnistria") and a symphony orchestra which is known abroad.
- "On the situation of Russian schools in Moldova". OSCE. 14 July 2011.
- "Law of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic on the Functioning of Languages on the Territory of the Moldavian SSR". U.S. English Foundation Research. 2016. Archived from the original on 21 September 2016.
- "Russian language in Moldova could lose their status (Русский язык в Молдове может потерять свой статус)". KORRESPONDENT. 6 April 2013.
- The Supreme Soviet changed the official name of the republic from Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic to Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic on 5 November 1991. See: "Postanovlenie verkhovnogo soveta Pridnestrovskoi Moldavskoi Respubliki ob izmenenii nazvaniia respubliki," Dnestrovskaia pravda, 6 November 1991, 1.
- "Aproape 356 mii de locuitori din Regiunea Transnistreană dețin cetățenia Republicii Moldova și aproape 365 mii figurează în registrul de stat al populației". www.gov.md/ro (in Romanian). Guvernul Republicii Moldova (Biroul Politici de Reintegrare). 27 September 2023. Retrieved 3 October 2023.
- "Макроэкономика: Динамика и структура валового внутреннего продукта в 2021 году [Macroeconomics: Dynamics and structure of GDP in 2021] / Nr.2/249 - pg.3 (2022)" (PDF). www.cbpmr.net. Приднестровский Республиканский Банк [Pridnestrovian Republican Bank]. Retrieved 30 April 2023.
- "The country that doesn't exist".
- Necsutu, Madalin (16 March 2022). "Council of Europe Designates Transnistria 'Russian Occupied Territory'". balkaninsight.com. Balkan Insight. Retrieved 19 March 2022.