Republic of Artsakh

de-facto non-recognized republic in the world

Artsakh, officially the Republic of Artsakh (/ˈɑːrtsæx/; Armenian: Արցախի Հանրապետություն, Artsakhi Hanrapetutyun) or the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (/nəˌɡɔːrn kærəˈbæk/),[3] is a de facto independent republic in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of the South Caucasus. It is internationally recognised to be part of Azerbaijan.

Republic of Artsakh

Արցախի Հանրապետություն
Artsakhi Hanrapetutyun
Flag of Artsakh
Coat of arms of Artsakh
Coat of arms
Anthem: Ազատ ու Անկախ Արցախ (Armenian)
Azat u Ankakh Artsakh   (transliteration)
"Free and Independent Artsakh"
Territory controlled by Artsakh in dark green, claimed territory in light green.
Territory controlled by Artsakh in dark green, claimed territory in light green.
StatusUnrecognised state
Recognised by 3 non-UN members
and largest city
39°52′N 46°43′E / 39.867°N 46.717°E / 39.867; 46.717Coordinates: 39°52′N 46°43′E / 39.867°N 46.717°E / 39.867; 46.717
Official languagesArmeniana
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
• President
Arayik Harutyunyan
Arthur Tovmasyan
LegislatureNational Assembly
Independence from the Soviet Union
• Autonomy
2 September 1991[1]
• Declared
10 December 1991
• Total
3,170 km2 (1,220 sq mi)[source?]
• 2015 census
150,932[2] (191st)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$713 million (n/a)
• Per capita
$4,803 (n/a)
Currency (AMD)
Time zoneUTC+4 (AMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+374 47c
ISO 3166 codeAM
Internet, .հայ
  1. The constitution guarantees "the free use of other languages spread among the population".
  2. Head of state and head of government, after the post of prime minister was abolished following a constitutional referendum.
  3. +374 97 for mobile phones.

It has previously been populated by Azerbaijanis for a long time. The area has been disputed by Armenia and Azerbaijan since 1918. After the Soviet Union established control over the area, in 1923 it formed the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) within the Azerbaijan SSR. In the final years of the Soviet Union, the region again became a source of dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan, resulting in the Nagorno-Karabakh War from 1988–1994.

On 10 December 1991, a referendum was held in the NKAO and the neighbouring Shahumian region, which was boycotted by the region's Azerbaijani population. This resulted in a declaration of independence from Azerbaijan as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. The country is not recognized by any UN member state, including Armenia. Representatives of the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan have since been holding peace talks mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group.


The Artsakh Republic has a lot of mountains. It is 11,500 km2 (4,440 sq mi) in area, and borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. The highest peaks in the country are Mount Mrav, 3,340 metres (10,958 ft), and Mount Kirs 2,725 metres (8,940 ft). The major rivers are the Terter and Khachen rivers.[4] Most rivers in the country flow towards the Artsakh valley.[5]

The climate in the Artsakh Republic is mild. It is foggy for over 100 days a year. More than 36% of the country is forested.


In 2005, the country's population was 137,737. The ethnic composition was 137,380 (99.74%) Armenians, 171 (0.12%) Russians, 21 (0.02%) Ukrainians, 6 (0.00%) Azerbaijanis and 159 (0.12%) others.

The first demographic census in the Artsakh Republic took place in 1769. It was a letter from Heraclius II of Georgia to Russia's Petr Ivanovich Panin, and said, "Seven families rule the region of Khamse. Its population is totally Armenian." [6][7]

In 2014, the life expectancy for males was 71.6 years, and females 76.8 years.[8]


  1. Zürcher, Christoph (2007). The Post-Soviet Wars: Rebellion, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationhood in the Caucasus ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). New York: New York University Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780814797099.
  2. "ԼՂՀ 2015Թ. ՄԱՐԴԱՀԱՄԱՐԻ ՆԱԽՆԱԿԱՆ ՕՊԵՐԱՏԻՎ ՑՈՒՑԱՆԻՇՆԵՐԻ ՄԱՍԻՆ". STAF NKRE. 30 March 2016. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
  3. "Constitution of the Republic of Artsakh". Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Republic of Artsakh. Retrieved 2020-04-19. The names 'Republic of Artsakh' and 'Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh' are identical.
  4. "Nagorno Karabakh Republic – Country Overview". Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  5. "The Office of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic in USA". Retrieved 6 May 2012.
  6. Цагарели А. А. Грамота и гругие исторические документы XVIII столетия, относяшиеся к Грузии, Том 1. СПб 1891, ц. 434-435. This book is available online from Google Books
  7. Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia, 1626-1796: A Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, page 246
  8. The National Statistical Service of Nagorno-Karabach Republic

Other websitesEdit

Official websites