Republic of Artsakh
Artsakh, officially the Republic of Artsakh (//; Armenian: Արցախի Հանրապետություն, Artsakhi Hanrapetutyun) or the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (/ /), is a de facto independent republic in the Nagorno-Karabakh region of the South Caucasus. It is internationally recognised to be part of Azerbaijan.
Republic of Artsakh
|Anthem: Ազատ ու Անկախ Արցախ (Armenian)|
Azat u Ankakh Artsakh (transliteration)
"Free and Independent Artsakh"
Recognised by 3 non-UN members
and largest city
|Official languages||Armenian and Russian|
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|Independence from the Soviet Union|
|2 September 1991|
|10 December 1991|
|3,170 km2 (1,220 sq mi)[source?]|
• 2015 census
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
|$713 million (n/a)|
• Per capita
|Time zone||UTC+4 (AMT)|
|Calling code||+374 47c|
|ISO 3166 code||AM|
|Internet TLD||.am, .հայ|
It has been populated for a long time by the Armenians since the Classical antiquity. In the 11th century the Seljuk invasion swept over the Middle East, including Transcaucasia. Nomadic Turkic Oghuz Seljuk tribes, which also include the Azerbaijanis, who were brought with this invasion became dominant in Nagorno-Karabakh. From this time, till the beginning of the 20th century these tribes used Mountainous Karabakh as their summer pastures, where they stayed for about four-five warmer months of year, and moreover, in fact owned the region.
The area has been disputed by Armenia and Azerbaijan since 1918. After the Soviet Union established control over the area, in 1923 it formed the Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast (NKAO) within the Azerbaijan SSR. In the final years of the Soviet Union, the region again became a source of dispute between Armenia and Azerbaijan, resulting in the Nagorno-Karabakh War from 1988–1994.
On 10 December 1991, a referendum was held in the NKAO and the neighbouring Shahumian region, which was boycotted by the region's Azerbaijani population. This resulted in a declaration of independence from Azerbaijan as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. The country is not recognized by any UN member state, including Armenia. Representatives of the governments of Armenia and Azerbaijan have since been holding peace talks mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group.
The Artsakh Republic has a lot of mountains. It is 11,500 km2 (4,440 sq mi) in area, and borders Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. The highest peaks in the country are Mount Mrav, 3,340 metres (10,958 ft), and Mount Kirs 2,725 metres (8,940 ft). The major rivers are the Terter and Khachen rivers. Most rivers in the country flow towards the Artsakh valley.
The first demographic census in the Artsakh Republic took place in 1769. It was a letter from Heraclius II of Georgia to Russia's Petr Ivanovich Panin, and said, "Seven families rule the region of Khamse. Its population is totally Armenian." 
In 2014, the life expectancy for males was 71.6 years, and females 76.8 years.
- Zürcher, Christoph (2007). The Post-Soviet Wars: Rebellion, Ethnic Conflict, and Nationhood in the Caucasus ([Online-Ausg.]. ed.). New York: New York University Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780814797099.
- "ԼՂՀ 2015Թ. ՄԱՐԴԱՀԱՄԱՐԻ ՆԱԽՆԱԿԱՆ ՕՊԵՐԱՏԻՎ ՑՈՒՑԱՆԻՇՆԵՐԻ ՄԱՍԻՆ". STAF NKRE. 30 March 2016. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 30 March 2016.
- "Constitution of the Republic of Artsakh". Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Republic of Artsakh. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
The names 'Republic of Artsakh' and 'Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh' are identical.
- "Azerbaijan". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Olcott, M.; Malashenko, M. (1998). Традиционное землепользование кочевников исторического Карабаха и современный армяно-азербайджанский этнотерриториальный конфликт (Анатолий Ямсков) [The Traditional Land-use of the Nomads of Historical Karabakh and the Modern Armenian-Azerbaijani Ethno-territorial Conflict (by Anatoly N. Yamskov)]. Фактор этноконфессиональной самобытности в постсоветском обществе [The Factor of Ethno-confessional Identity in the Post-Soviet Society]. Московский Центр Карнеги (The Moscow Center of Carnegie). pp. 179–180. ISBN 0-87003-140-6.
This seasonal coexistence in the mountains of historical Karabakh with a sedentary Armenian population and a nomadic Turkic one, as well as some Kurdish, completely assimilated by Azerbaijanis in the 19th–20th centuries, arose a long time ago, simultaneously with the great movement of nomadic pastoralists into the plains of Azerbaijan.
Указанная ситуация сезонного сосуществования в горах исторического Карабаха оседлого армянского и кочевого тюркского населения, а также частично и курдского, полностью ассимилированного азербайджанцами в XIX—XX вв., возникла очень давно, одновременно с массовым проникновением кочевых скотоводов на равнины Азербайджана.
- Yamskov, A. N. (June 22, 2014). "Ethnic Conflict in the Transcausasus: The Case of Nagorno-Karabakh". Theory and Society (published October 1991). 20 (5, Special Issue on Ethnic Conflict in the Soviet Union): 650 – via JSTOR.
The Azeri conception of Karabakh as an inseparable part of Azerbaijan is based on other considerations than the oblast's ethnic composition. The Armenians have resided in Karabakh for a long time, and they represented an absolute majority of its population at the time that the autonomous oblast was formed. However, for centuries the entire high mountain zone of this region belonged to the nomadic Turkic herdsmen, from whom the Khans of Karabakh were descended. Traditionally, these direct ancestors of the Azeris of the Agdamskii raion (and of the other raions between the mountains of Karabakh and the Kura and Araks Rivers) lived in Karabakh for the four or five warm months of the year, and spent the winter in the Mil'sko-Karabakh plains. The descendants of this nomadic herding population therefore claim a historic right to Karabakh and consider it as much their native land as that of the settled agricultural population that lived there year-round.
- "Nagorno Karabakh Republic – Country Overview". Nkrusa.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- "The Office of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic in USA". Nkrusa.org. Retrieved 6 May 2012.
- Цагарели А. А. Грамота и гругие исторические документы XVIII столетия, относяшиеся к Грузии, Том 1. СПб 1891, ц. 434-435. This book is available online from Google Books
- Bournoutian, George A. Armenians and Russia, 1626-1796: A Documentary Record. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda Publishers, 2001, page 246
- The National Statistical Service of Nagorno-Karabach Republic
- Official websites
- Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
- Office of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Washington D.C.
- National Statistical Service of NKR
- President of the Nagorno Karabagh Republic