Armenians

ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands
(Redirected from Armenian people)

Armenians (Armenian: հայեր, romanized: Hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. According to various estimates, the total population of Armenians in the world is 7 to 8 million.[1]

Armenians
Armenian: Հայեր, romanized: Hayer
Flag of Armenia.svg
Flag of Armenia
Total population
c. 78 million[2]
Map of the Armenian Diaspora in the World.svg
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia: 2,961,514[3]
Flag of Artsakh.svg Artsakh: 144,683[4]
Flag of Russia.svg Russia2,000,000+[a]
Flag of the United States.svg United States1,500,000[b]–1,600,000[7]
Flag of France.svg France650,000[8]
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia168,100[9]–200,000+[10]
Flag of Iran.svg Iran60,000–80,000[11]
Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon100,000–120,000[12]
Flag of Syria.svg Syria30,000[13]
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine99,900[14]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada63,810[15]–90,000[16]
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey50,000[17]
Black Libne.png
2,000,000–5,000,000[18][19] (Crypto and Islamized Armenians)
Flag of Germany.svg Germany50,000–60,000[20]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands40,000[21][22]
Flag of Spain.svg Spain40,000–50,000[23][24]
Flag of Uruguay.svg Uruguay20,000[c]
Flag of Australia.svg Australia16,723[26]–60,000[27]
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil50,000[28]
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina120,000[29]
Languages
Armenian
Religion
Majority:
Christian cross.svg Christianity
(Armenian Apostolic, Catholic, Protestant) Minority:
Armenian Native Faith[d]
Irreligion

HistoryEdit

Kingdom of UrartuEdit

Armenians are the heirs of the Urartians.[30] Redgate says that the Urartians are the "most easily identifiable" ancestors of the Armenians.[31] Philip D. Curtin defined the Kingdom of Urartu as an Armenian kingdom.[32]

 
Kingdom of Urartu at its greatest extent during king Sarduri II.

The territory of the ancient Kingdom of Urartu extended over the modern frontiers of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and the Republic of Armenia. Its center was the Armenian highland between Lake Van, Lake Urmia, and Lake Sevan.[33] During the seventh century, the Urartians collaborated with a combination of Scythians and Cimmerians in their jockeying for power, but by 590, having been weakened in the constant rivalry between Assyrians, Babylonians, Scythians, and Medes, Urartu was swallowed by the Medes.[34]

 
Fragment of a bronze helmet from Urartian king Argishti I's era. The "tree of life", popular among the ancient societies, is depicted.

Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity)Edit

The Kingdom of Armenia was ruled by the Orontid (also known as Yervanduni or Eurandids) dynasty from 321 BC to 200 BC. The Orontids (Eurandids) were an Armenian[35][36] dynasty of probably Iranian[37] origin. Around 200 BC a coup by the Armenian noble family of Artaxias toppled the Orontid (Yervanduni) dynasty,[38] thus the Artaxiad dynasty came to power. The Artaxiad dynasty was been identified as a branch of the Orontid (Eurandid) dynasty.[37]

 
The Kingdom of Armenia at its greatest extent under Tigranes the Great

Under Tigranes the Great, a member of this dynasty, during his reign, Kingdom of Armenia stretched from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean and the Kingdom of Armenia was called the "Armenian empire" during her reign.[39]

Approximately half a century after the collapse of the Artaxiad dynasty Armenia was under the rule of the Arshakunis, the Armenian branch of the Parthian Arsacids.[40] Next, in 314, under King Tiridates (Trdat) the Great and through the apostolate of St. Gregory the Illuminator, Armenia, nearly simultaneously with the Roman empire, officially accepted Christianity, a turning point in its history.[41] An event of importance in the Arshakuni period was the invention, on the threshold of the fifth century, of the Armenian alphabet by St. Mesrop. With this Armenian became the language of the educated; it was introduced into the liturgy; and national literature was born (under Hellenistic and Syrian influences). Armenia’s identity and individuality were thus saved and an absorption by either Byzantine or Iranian civilization was precluded.[42]

 
Kingdom of Armenia under the Arshakuni dynasty, 150 AD

Kingdom of Armenia (medieval)Edit

Ashot I's prestige rose as both Byzantine and Arab leaders courted him. The Abbasid Caliphate recognized Ashot as "prince of princes" in 862 and, later on, as king. Several contemporary prominent Armenians, including Grigor-Derenik Vaspurakan, insisted on Ashot's coronation.[43] Ashot was crowned King of Armenia through the consent of Caliph al-Mu'tamid in 885 to prevent intrusion into Armenian territory by Basil I, a Byzantine emperor of Armenian origin.[44] The establishment of the Bagratuni kingdom later led to the founding of several other Armenian principalities and kingdoms: Taron, Vaspurakan, Kars, Khachen and Syunik.[45] During the reign of Ashot III (952/53–77), Ani became the kingdom's capital and grew into a thriving economic and cultural center.[46] The first half of the 11th century saw the decline and eventual collapse of the kingdom. The Byzantine emperor Basil II (r. 976–1025) won a string of victories and annexed parts of southwestern Armenia. King Hovhannes-Smbat felt forced to cede his lands and in 1022 promised to "will" his kingdom to the Byzantines following his death. However, after Hovhannes-Smbat's death in 1041, his successor, Gagik II, refused to hand over Ani and continued resistance until 1045, when his kingdom, plagued with internal and external threats, was finally taken by Byzantine forces.[47] It can be assumed that Armenia had a population of 5–6 million at that time in the (IX-XI centuries).[48]

 
Kingdom of Armenia, under the Bagratuni dynasty, c. 1000 AD

Armenian Kingdom of CiliciaEdit

The kingdom had its origins in the principality founded 1080 by the Rubenid dynasty, an alleged offshoot of the larger Bagratuni dynasty, which at various times had held the throne of Armenia. Their capital was originally at Tarsus, and later became Sis.

In 1198, with the crowning of Leo I, King of Armenia of the Rubenid dynasty, Cilician Armenia became a kingdom.[49][50]

In 1226, the crown was passed to rival Hethumids through Leo's daughter Isabella's second husband, Hethum I. As the Mongols conquered vast regions of Central Asia and the Middle East, Hethum and succeeding Hethumid rulers sought to create an Armeno-Mongol alliance against common Muslim foes, most notably the Mamluks.[50] In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Crusader states and the Mongol Ilkhanate disintegrated, leaving the Armenian Kingdom without any regional allies. After relentless attacks by the Mamluks in Egypt in the fourteenth century, the Cilician Armenia of the Lusignan dynasty, mired in an internal religious conflict, finally fell in 1375.[51]

Commercial and military interactions with Europeans brought new Western influences to the Cilician Armenian society. Many aspects of Western European life were adopted by the nobility including chivalry, fashions in clothing, and the use of French titles, names, and language. Moreover, the organization of the Cilician society shifted from its traditional system to become closer to Western feudalism.[52] The European Crusaders themselves borrowed know-how, such as elements of Armenian castle-building and church architecture. Cilician Armenia thrived economically, with the port of Ayas serving as a center for East–West trade.[52]

 
Detailed map of Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia.

Modern periodEdit

From the 17th century, Western Armenia fell under Ottoman rule and Eastern Armenia fell under Iran (Safavids; Afsharids, Zands and Qajars) rule. The Iran in Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) lost Western Armenia to the Russians.

 
About 600,000–1,500,000 million Armenians were killed during the Armenian genocide in 1915–1918.

Ottoman Empire

On the eve of World War I in 1914, around two million Armenians lived in Anatolia out of a total population of 15–17.5 million.[53] According to the Armenian Patriarchate's estimates for 1913–1914, there were 2,925 Armenian towns and villages in the Ottoman Empire, of which 2,084 were in the Armenian highlands in the vilayets of Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Erzerum, Harput, and Van.[54] Armenians were a minority in most places where they lived, alongside Turkish and Kurdish Muslim and Greek Orthodox Christian neighbors.[53][54] According to the Patriarchate's figure, 215,131 Armenians lived in urban areas, especially Constantinople, Smyrna, and Eastern Thrace.[54] Although most Ottoman Armenians were peasant farmers, they were overrepresented in commerce. As middleman minorities, despite the wealth of some Armenians, their overall political power was low, making them especially vulnerable.[55] The ethnic cleansing of Armenians during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is widely considered a genocide, The Ottoman Empire massacred approximately 600,000–1,500,000 Armenians. The first wave of persecution was in the years 1894 to 1896, the second one culminating in the events of the Armenian genocide in 1915 and 1916.

First Republic, Mountainous Armenia, Soviet Armenia, today

The First Republic of Armenia was established in 1918, but collapsed in 1920. In 1921, the Republic of Mountainous Armenia was established but collapsed in the same year. Afterwards Armenia came under the Soviet administration and became one of the Soviet Republics. In 1991, like other Soviet Republics, Armenia gained its independence.

SourcesEdit

HistoryEdit

  • Panossian, Razmik (2006). The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars. Columbia University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0231139267. Around 200 BC a coup by the Armenian noble family of Artashes(Artaxias) toppled the Yervanduni dynasty.
  • Lang, David M. (2000). "Iran, Armenia and Georgia". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 3: The Seleucid, Parthian and Sasanid Periods. Cambridge University Press. p. 535. ISBN 0-521-20092-X. Here a scion of the Armenian Orontid house, King Antiochus I [...] Armenian dynasty of the Orontids.
  • Wilken, Robert Louis (2012). The First Thousand Years: A Global History of Christianity. Yale University Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-300-11884-1. Under Tigranes the Great (95–55 B.C.), the Armenian empire stretched from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean.
  • Versluys, Miguel John (2017). Visual Style and Constructing Identity in the Hellenistic World: Nemrud Dağ and Commagene under Antiochos I. Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-107-14197-1. Most scholars assume that Ptolemy was the first Commagenean king and that he descended from the Armenian Orontids.
  • Panossian, Razmik (2006a). The Armenians: From Kings and Priests to Merchants and Commissars. Columbia University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0231139267. Approximately half a century after the collapse of the Artashesian dynasty Armenia was ruled by the Arshakunis, the Armenian branch of the Parthian Arsacids.
  • Frye, Richard N (1984). The History of Ancient Iran. Munich: C.H. Beck. p. 73. ISBN 978-3406093975. The real heirs of the Urartians, however, were neither the Scythians nor Medes but the Armenians.
  • Redgate, A. E (2000). The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 978-0631220374. However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians.
  • Curtin, Philip D. (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-521-26931-5. At least three times in history, Armenians rose to unusual territorial power. The first was in the ninth to the sixth century B.C., where the Armenian kingdom of Urartu was an important stopping point for trade between Asia and the Mediterranean world.
  • Bournoutian, George; Atamian, Ani (1997). Hovannisian., Richard G. (ed.). "Cilician Armenia" in The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Ed. Richard G. Hovannisian. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 283–290. ISBN 1-4039-6421-1.
  • Kleiss, Wolfram (2008). "URARTU IN IRAN". Encyclopædia Iranica. The territory of the ancient kingdom of Urartu extended over the modern frontiers of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and the Republic of Armenia. Its center was the Armenian highland between Lake Van, Lake Urmia, and Lake Sevan.
  • Ghazarian, Jacob G. (2000). The Armenian Kingdom in Cilicia during the Crusades: The Integration of Cilician Armenians with the Latins (1080–1393). Routledge. pp. 54–55. ISBN 0-7007-1418-9.
  • Ghafadaryan, Karo (1984). "Անի [Ani]". Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia (in Armenian). Vol. 1. Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences. pp. 407–412.
  • Grousset, René (2008) [1947]. Histoire de l'Arménie des origines à 1071 [History of the Origins of Armenia until 1071]. Paris. p. 394. ISBN 978-2-228-88912-4.
  • Garsoïan, Nina (2007) [1982]. Indépendance retrouvée : royaume du Nord et royaume du Sud (IXe-XIe siècle) - Le royaume du Nord" [Independence Found: Northern Kingdom and Southern Kingdom (9th - 11th Century) - The Northern Kingdom]. Histoire du peuple arménien [History of the Armenian People]. Toulouse. p. 244. ISBN 978-2-7089-6874-5.
  • Bournoutian, George A. (2006). A Concise History of the Armenian People: From Ancient Times to the Present. Costa Mesa, CA: Mazda. p. 87. ISBN 978-1-56859-141-4.
  • Toumanoff, C. (1986). "Arsacids vii. The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 5. pp. 543–546. An event of importance in the Arsacid period was the invention, on the threshold of the fifth century, of the Armenian alphabet by St. Maštocʿ (Mesrop). With this Armenian became the language of the educated; it was introduced into the liturgy; and national literature was born (under Hellenistic and Syrian influences). Armenia’s identity and individuality were thus saved and an absorption by either Byzantine or Iranian civilization was precluded.
  • Nersessian, Sirarpie Der (1962). "The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia". In Setton, Kenneth M.; Wolff, Robert Lee; Hazard, Harry W. (ed.). A History of the Crusades. Vol. II. Madison, Milwaukee, and London: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 645–653. ISBN 0-299-04844-6.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Toumanoff, C. (1986a). "Arsacids vii. The Arsacid dynasty of Armenia". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. II, Fasc. 5. pp. 543–546. Next, in 314, under King Tiridates (Trdat) the Great and through the apostolate of St. Gregory the Illuminator, Armenia, nearly simultaneously with the Roman empire, officially accepted Christianity, a turning point in its history.
  • Suny, Ronald Grigor (2015). They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else: A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-6558-1.
  • Kurdoghlian, Mihran (1996). Պատմութիւն Հայոց [History of Armenia] (in Armenian). Vol. II. Athens: Հրատարակութիւն ազգային ուսումնակաան խորհուրդի [Council of National Education Publishing]. pp. 43–44.
  • Kévorkian, Raymond (2011). The Armenian Genocide: A Complete History. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-0-85771-930-0.
  • Garsoïan, N. (2005). "TIGRAN II". Encyclopædia Iranica. Tigran (Tigranes) II was the most distinguished member of the so-called Artašēsid/Artaxiad dynasty [...] which has now been identified as a branch of the earlier Eruandid dynasty of Iranian origin attested as ruling in Armenia from at least the 5th century B.C.E (...)
  • Bloxham, Donald (2005). The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927356-0.
  • Poghosyan, Seron (1975). "Սոցիալ-տնտեսական հարաբերությունները և քաղաքական կարգերը IX—XI դարերում [Socio-economic relations and political order in the 9th-11th centuries]". In Melik‑Bakhshyan, Stepan (ed.). Հայ ժողովրդի պատմություն․ Սկզբից մինչև XVIII դարի վերջը [History of the Armenian People: From the Beginning to the late 18th century] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Yerevan University Press. pp. 427–428. Հայաստանում IX—XI դարերում [...] Կարելի է ենթադրել, որ Հայաստանը այդ ժամանակ ուներ 5—6 միլիոն բնակչություն։
  • Jacobson, Esther (1995). The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World. BRILL. p. 33. ISBN 90-04-09856-9. During the seventh century, the Urartians collaborated with a combination of Scythians and Cimmerians¹² in their jockeying for power, but by 590, having been weakened in the constant rivalry between Assyrians, Babylonians, Scythians, and Medes, Urartu was swallowed by the Medes.

PopulationEdit

  • Von Voss, Huberta, ed. (2007). Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World (1st English ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. xxv. ISBN 978-1-84545-257-5. (...) there are some 8 million Armenians in the world (...)
  • Philander, S. George, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change. Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 77. ISBN 9781412958783. An estimated 60 percent of the total 8 million Armenians worldwide live outside the country (...)
  • Herb, Guntram H.; Kaplan, David H. (2008). Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 1705. ISBN 978-1-85109-908-5. A nation of some 8 million people, about 3 million of whom live in the newly independent post-Soviet state, Armenians are constantly battling not to lose their distinct culture, identity and the newly established statehood.
  • Freedman, Jeri (2008). The Armenian Genocide. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4042-1825-3. In contrast to its population of 3.2 million, approximately 8 million Armenians live in other countries of the world, including large communities in the United States and Russia.
  • Stokes, Jamie, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. New York: Facts On File. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-4381-2676-0. Estimates suggest that the global Armenian population is 7 million (...)
  • Dufoix, Stéphane (2008). Diasporas. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-520-25359-9. Current statistics suggest a population of 7 million Armenians worldwide, 3 million of whom in Armenia.
  • Saunders, Robert A.; Strukov, Vlad (2010). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780810874602. Worldwide, there are more than 8 million Armenians; 3.2 million reside in the Republic of Armenia.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Stokes 2008, p. 66; Dufoix 2008, p. 53; Saunders & Strukov 2010, p. 50; Philander 2008, p. 77; Freedman 2008, p. 52; Herb & Kaplan 2008, p. 1705; Von Voss 2007, p. xxv.
  2. Stokes 2008, p. 66; Dufoix 2008, p. 53; Saunders & Strukov 2010, p. 50; Philander 2008, p. 77; Freedman 2008, p. 52; Herb & Kaplan 2008, p. 1705; Von Voss 2007, p. xxv.
  3. "2011 Census Results" (PDF). National Statistical Service of Republic of Armenia. p. 144.
  4. Artsakhi census, 2015.
  5. "Interview with Rossiya TV channel". President of Russia. 7 October 2020, "Suffice it to say that some 2 million Azerbaijanis and over 2 million Armenians live in Russia, as far as we know."
  6. "President Biden's message to Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan on the occasion of 30th anniversary of Armenia's Independence". U.S. Embassy in Armenia. 21 September 2021, "Our two nations are bonded by history, family, and friendship, including 1.5 million Armenian-Americans whose contributions enrich and strengthen our bilateral ties."
  7. "United States of America". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "In 2003, the number of Armenians in the United States was estimated at 1.2 million, currently, the number stands at 1.6 million mostly concentrated in the cities of Los Angeles, New York, Detroit, Boston, Chicago, Philadelphia, Fresno, San Francisco, and Providence."
  8. "France". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "During the twentieth century, tens of thousands more Armenians chose to move to France, coming from Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iran, and Armenia. Currently, an estimated 650,000 Armenians live here."
  9. Georgian census, 2014.
  10. "Georgia". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "More than 200,000 Armenians currently live in Georgia, (400.000, according to unofficial data) concentrated mainly in Tbilisi, Javakhk, Kvemo Kartli, Batumi, Telavi, Surami, Gori, Bolnis-Khachen and other places."
  11. "Iran". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "Nowadays, there are around 60-80,000 Armenians living in Iran. The Iranian-Armenian community is the largest of Iran’s national minorities."
  12. "Lebanon". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "Until the mid-1970s, the Lebanese-Armenian community had around 250-300 thousand members. According to various sources, about 100-120.000 Armenians reside in Lebanon today, due to the protracted Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990) and the resulting need and lasting economic crisis. As a result of the Syrian war, most Armenians left their second homeland, Syria. Around 15.000 of them settled in Lebanon."
  13. "Syria". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "As a result of the Syrian war, more than 60.000 Armenians left Syria. Today, there are about 30.000 Armenians in Syria, and most of them live in Aleppo. Since the beginning of the Syrian war, Armenia has received about 25.000 Syrian-Armenians."
  14. Ukrainian census, 2001.
  15. Canadian census, 2016.
  16. "Canada". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "Today, about 90,000 Armenians live in Canada. They mostly live in Montreal, Toronto, Vancouver, Quebec, St. Catharines, Ottawa and other cities."
  17. Lowen, Mark (2015). "Armenian tragedy still raw in Turkey 100 years on". BBC News. "From a pre-war Armenian population of two million, just 50,000 remain in Turkey today."
  18. Danielyan, Diana (2011). ""Azg": Is the awakening of Islamized Armenians in Turkey possible?". Hayern Aysor. "Dagch says according to different calculations, there are 3-5 million Islamized Armenians in Turkey and that the Foundation’s most important mission is to awaken them."
  19. Khanlaryan, Karen (2005). "The Armenian ethnoreligious elements in the Western Armenia". Noravank Foundation. "Thus, we can come to the conclusions that in the geographical areal of our research the number of “Anatolian” “Official” Armenians is insignificant, less then 5.000, the number of “Islamized” Armenians excels the number of one million and reaches 1.300.000 and “Crypto” Armenians are more then 700.000."
  20. "Germany". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "According to various sources, Armenians settled in Germany in the 14th and 15th centuries, but communities began to form in the late 19th century. The number of Armenians has increased since the aftermath of the Armenian Genocide, World War II, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. As a result, the population of Armenians grew to its current size of about 50,000-60,000."
  21. "The Armenian community of the Netherlands". Embassy of the Republic of Armenia to Netherlands. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia. "Currently (2020) about 40,000 Armenians live in the Netherlands."
  22. "Netherlands". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "The Armenian community in the Netherlands was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries. The current population of about 40,000 consists of those who came to the Netherlands since the 1950s and Armenians who moved from Armenia after the collapse of the Soviet Union."
  23. "About Community". Embassy of the Republic of Armenia to Spain. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Armenia. "The number of Armenians settled in Spain is around 40 thousands."
  24. "Spain". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "Today, the Armenian community in Spain is the third-largest in Western Europe with an estimated population of 40,000-50,000 people. The majority of Armenians in Spain arrived from Armenia in the 1990s and 2000s and mainly settled in the regions of Madrid, Barcelona, and Valencia."
  25. "Armenian High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs meets Uruguay's FM". Armenpress. 15 August 2019, "Uruguay's Minister of Foreign Affairs Rodolfo Nin Novoa emphasized the Armenians' role in his country and noted that according to their estimates 20,000 Armenians live in Uruguay currently."
  26. Australian census, 2011.
  27. "Australia". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "According to sources, up to 60,000 Armenians currently live in Australia."
  28. "Brazil". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "The Brazilian-Armenian community grew in the 1950s and late 1960s when groups of Armenians moved from Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Egypt, and France to Brazil. They settled in the cities of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, and Fortaleza. Data reports estimate the number of Armenians in Brazil at 50,000."
  29. "Argentina". High Commissioner for Diaspora Affairs of Armenia. "Today, the number of Armenians in Argentina is around 120,000, most of whom are concentrated in Buenos Aires, and 7,000 in Cordoba. There are small Armenian communities of about 500 in Rosario and Mar del Plata, as well as in the states of Misiones, Mendoza, Neuquen, and Rio Negro."
  30. Frye 1984, p. 73.
  31. Redgate 2000, p. 5.
  32. Curtin 1984, p. 185.
  33. Kleiss 2008.
  34. Jacobson 1995, p. 33.
  35. Lang 2000, p. 535.
  36. Versluys 2017, p. 48.
  37. 37.0 37.1 Garsoïan 2005.
  38. Panossian 2006, p. 36.
  39. Wilken 2012, p. 229.
  40. Panossian 2006a, p. 38.
  41. Toumanoff 1986a, pp. 543–546.
  42. Toumanoff 1986, pp. 543–546.
  43. Grousset 2008, p. 394.
  44. Garsoïan 2007, p. 244.
  45. Ter-Ghevondyan; Aram, N (1976). «Բագրատունիների Թագավորություն» (Bagratuni Kingdom). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. (in Armenian). Vol. 2. Yerevan: Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences. p. 202.
  46. Ghafadaryan 1984, pp. 407–412.
  47. Bournoutian 2006, p. 87.
  48. Poghosyan 1975, p. 427–428.
  49. Kurdoghlian 1996, pp. 43–44.
  50. 50.0 50.1 Nersessian 1962, pp. 645–653.
  51. Ghazarian 2000, pp. 54–55.
  52. 52.0 52.1 Bournoutian & Atamian 1997, pp. 283–290.
  53. 53.0 53.1 Suny 2015, p. xviii.
  54. 54.0 54.1 54.2 Kévorkian 2011, p. 279.
  55. Bloxham 2005, p. 8–9.

NotesEdit

  1. Russian president Vladimir Putin said that more than 2,000,000 Armenians live in Russia.[5]
  2. United States President Joe Biden said there are 1,500,000 Armenian-Americans.[6]
  3. Uruguay's Minister of Foreign Affairs Rodolfo Nin Novoa noted that according to their estimates 20,000 Armenians live in Uruguay currently.[25]
  4. Also called Hetanism or Armenian Neopaganism.