Armenians

nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands
(Redirected from Armenian people)

Armenians (Armenian: հայեր, romanized: Hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. According to various estimates, the total population of Armenians in the world is 7 to 9 million.[1]

Armenians
Armenian: Հայեր, romanized: Hayer
Flag of Armenia.svg
Flag of Armenia
Total population
c. 79 million[2]
Map of the Armenian Diaspora in the World.svg
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Armenia.svg Armenia 2,961,514[3][a]
Flag of Artsakh.svg Artsakh 137,380[5]
Flag of Russia.svg Russia2,000,000+[b]–2,500,000[7]
Flag of the United States.svg United States1,500,000[c]
Flag of France.svg France250,000[7]–750,000[9]
Flag of Georgia.svg Georgia~168,000[10][d]
Flag of Iran.svg Iran180,000[e]–200,000[12]
Flag of Lebanon.svg Lebanon105,000[f][g]
Flag of Syria.svg Syria70,000[h]
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine99.900[i]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Canada63,810[j]
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey50,000–70,000[k][l]
Flag of Greece.svg Greece60,000[19]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg Australia16,723[20]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands1,351[m]
Languages
Armenian
Religion
Christianity
Islam

List of Armenian states, dynasties and countriesEdit

Direct Armenian states and dynastiesEdit

Ancient age

  • Kingdom of Urartu* (860 BC–590 BC) – Armenians are the heirs of the Urartians.[22] A. E. Redgate says that the Urartians are the "most easily identifiable" ancestors of the Armenians.[23] Philip D. Curtin defined the Kingdom of Urartu as an Armenian kingdom.[24]
  •     Kingdom of Armenia[n] (321 BC–428 AD)

Medieval age

  • Heraclian dynasty (610 AD–695 AD) – Heraclius, the founder of the dynasty, was probably of wholly or partly Armenian descent.[25][26][27][28][29] The Heraclian dynasty, ruled the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 695.
  • Principality of Hamamshen (790 AD–1486 AD)
  •   Kingdom of Armenia[o] (885 AD–1045 AD)
  • Kingdom of Vaspurakan (908 AD–1021 AD)[30]
  • Kingdom of Tashir-Dzoraget (979 AD–1118 AD)
  • Kingdom of Syunik (987 AD–1170 AD)[31]
  • Kingdom of Artsakh (1000 AD–1261 AD)
  •       Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia[p] (1080 AD–1375 AD)
  • Principality of Khachen (1261 AD–1750 AD)

Modern period

  •   First Republic of Armenia[q] (1918–1920)
  •   Republic of Mountainous Armenia (1921–1921)

Present-day

  •   Republic of Armenia (1991–)
  •   Republic of Artsakh (1991–)

OthersEdit

  •   Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic[r] (1920–1991[t])

SourcesEdit

  • Papazian, H. (1986). "ARMENIA AND IRAN vi. Armeno-Iranian relations in the Islamic period". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. II. pp. 467–478. In 1170, with a new invasion, the Armenian Kingdom of Siunikʿ was terminated.
  • Minorsky, V. (1953). Studies in Caucasian History. Cambridge University Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-521-05735-6. The Armenian kingdom of Vaspurakan (Balādhuri, 194, al-Basfurrajān) ruled by the Artsruni dynasty, extended from Van to the north-western corner of Azarbayjan and even to Nakhchevan (...)
  • Frye, Richard N (1984). The History of Ancient Iran. Munich: C.H. Beck. p. 73. ISBN 978-3406093975. The real heirs of the Urartians, however, were neither the Scythians nor Medes but the Armenians.
  • Redgate, A. E (2000). The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell. p. 5. ISBN 978-0631220374. However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians.
  • Curtin, Philip D. (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-521-26931-5. At least three times in history, Armenians rose to unusual territorial power. The first was in the ninth to the sixth century B.C., where the Armenian kingdom of Urartu was an important stopping point for trade between Asia and the Mediterranean world.
  • Treadgold, Warren T. (1997). A History of the Byzantine State and Society. Stanford University Press. p. 287. ISBN 9780804726306. Heraclius [...] his family were Armenians from Cappadocia (...)
  • Runciman, Steven (1987). A History of the Crusades. Cambridge University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-521-34770-9. In 610 Phocas was displaced by a young nobleman of Armenian descent, Heraclius, son of the governor of Africa.
  • Geanakoplos, Deno J. (1984). Byzantium: Church, Society, and Civilization Seen Through Contemporary Eyes. University of Chicago Press. p. 344. ISBN 9780226284606. Some of the greatest Byzantine emperors — Nicephorus Phocas, John Tzimisces and probably Heraclius — were of Armenian descent.
  • Kaegi, Walter Emil (2003). Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium. Cambridge University Press. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-521-81459-1. Heraclius the Younger was born son of Heraclius the Elder and Epiphania ca. 575, and was probably of Armenian descent (...)
  • Roberts, John Morris (1997). A Short History of the World. Oxford University Press. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-19-511504-8. Heraclius, Armenian by descent, had come to the throne a few years earlier and now revealed his quality.
  • Mirzoyan, Alla (2010). Armenia, the Regional Powers, and the West: Between History and Geopolitics. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 109. ISBN 9780230106352. (...) Today, the Armenian community in Iran numbers around 200,000 (...)
  • Gellman, Mneesha (2016). Democratization and Memories of Violence: Ethnic minority rights movements in Mexico, Turkey, and El Salvador. Routledge. p. 144. ISBN 978-1-317-35831-2. Today, there are roughly 60,000 Armenian citizens of Turkey living in Istanbul (...)
  • Agadjanian, Alexander (2016). Armenian Christianity Today: Identity Politics and Popular Practice. Routledge. p. 150. ISBN 978-1-317-17857-6. Exact numbers of Armenian in Istanbul vary by source; there are probably around 60,000 or 70,000.
  • Caroline, Thon (2012). Armenians in Hamburg: An Ethnographic Exploration Into the Relationship Between Diaspora and Success. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 25. ISBN 978-3-643-90226-9.
  • Goble, Paul (2017). "Islamicized Armenians in Turkey: A Bridge or a Threat?". Jamestown Foundation. One such group is the Hemshins of Turkey, a community of approximately 150,000 people who have Armenian backgrounds, often speak Armenian, but have become Islamicized.
  • O'Reilly, Andrea (2010). Encyclopedia of Motherhood. Vol. 1. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-4129-6846-1. Today, there are about 9 million Armenians around the world.
  • Philander, S. George, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change. Los Angeles: SAGE. p. 77. ISBN 9781412958783. An estimated 60 percent of the total 8 million Armenians worldwide live outside the country...
  • Von Voss, Huberta, ed. (2007). Portraits of Hope: Armenians in the Contemporary World (1st English ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. xxv. ISBN 978-1-84545-257-5. ...there are some 8 million Armenians in the world...
  • Herb, Guntram H.; Kaplan, David H. (2008). Nations and Nationalism: A Global Historical Overview. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 1705. ISBN 978-1-85109-908-5. A nation of some 8 million people, about 3 million of whom live in the newly independent post-Soviet state, Armenians are constantly battling not to lose their distinct culture, identity and the newly established statehood.
  • Freedman, Jeri (2008). The Armenian Genocide. New York: Rosen Publishing Group. p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4042-1825-3. In contrast to its population of 3.2 million, approximately 8 million Armenians live in other countries of the world, including large communities in the United States and Russia.
  • Stokes, Jamie, ed. (2008). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. New York: Facts On File. p. 66. ISBN 978-1-4381-2676-0. Estimates suggest that the global Armenian population is 7 million...
  • Dufoix, Stéphane (2008). Diasporas. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-520-25359-9. Current statistics suggest a population of 7 million Armenians worldwide, 3 million of whom in Armenia.
  • Saunders, Robert A.; Strukov, Vlad (2010). Historical dictionary of the Russian Federation. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. p. 51. ISBN 9780810874602. Worldwide, there are more than 8 million Armenians; 3.2 million reside in the Republic of Armenia.
  • Taylor, Tony (2008). Denial: History Betrayed. Melbourne University Pub. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-522-85482-4.

ReferencesEdit

  1. Stokes 2008, p. 66; Dufoix 2008, p. 53; Saunders & Strukov 2010, p. 50; Philander 2008, p. 77; Freedman 2008, p. 52; Herb & Kaplan 2008, p. 1705; Von Voss 2007, p. xxv; O'Reilly 2010, p. 74.
  2. Stokes 2008, p. 66; Dufoix 2008, p. 53; Saunders & Strukov 2010, p. 50; Philander 2008, p. 77; Freedman 2008, p. 52; Herb & Kaplan 2008, p. 1705; Von Voss 2007, p. xxv; O'Reilly 2010, p. 74.
  3. "2011 Census Results" (PDF). National Statistical Service of Republic of Armenia. p. 144.
  4. "Armenia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  5. "De Jure Population (Urban, Rural) by Age and Ethnicity" (PDF). National Statistical Service of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. "Interview with Rossiya TV channel". President of Russia. 7 October 2020, "Suffice it to say that some 2 million Azerbaijanis and over 2 million Armenians live in Russia, as far as we know."
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 Caroline 2012, p. 25.
  8. "President Biden's message to Prime Minister Nikol Pashinyan on the occasion of 30th anniversary of Armenia's Independence". U.S. Embassy in Armenia. 21 September 2021, "Our two nations are bonded by history, family, and friendship, including 1.5 million Armenian-Americans whose contributions enrich and strengthen our bilateral ties."
  9. Taylor 2008, p. 4.
  10. "National Statistics Office of Georgia" (PDF). National Statistics Office of Georgia. 28 April 2016.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  11. "Georgia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  12. Mirzoyan 2010, p. 109.
  13. "Lebanon". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States).
  14. "National composition of population". State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  15. "Ethnic Origin, both sexes, age (total), Canada, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada.
  16. Gellman 2016, p. 144.
  17. Agadjanian 2016, p. 150.
  18. Goble 2017.
  19. Dilsijian, Leonidas (2007). "Armenians in Greece". University of California, Irvine, "(...) Greece's 60,000-strong Armenian community (...)"
  20. "The People of Australia – Statistics from the 2011 Census" (PDF). Australian Government. 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  21. "CBS Statline". Statistics Netherlands (CBS).
  22. Frye 1984, p. 73.
  23. Redgate 2000, p. 5.
  24. Curtin 1984, p. 185.
  25. Kaegi 2003, p. 21.
  26. Treadgold 1997, p. 287.
  27. Geanakoplos 1984, p. 344.
  28. Runciman 1987, p. 10.
  29. Roberts 1997, p. 161.
  30. Minorsky 1953, p. 26.
  31. Papazian 1986, pp. 467–478.

NotesEdit

  1. %98,1 of population[4]
  2. Russian president Vladimir Putin said that more than 2,000,000 Armenians live in Russia.[6]
  3. United States President Joe Biden said there are 1,500,000 Armenian Americans.[8]
  4. %4,5 of population[11]
  5. "(...) 70,000 Armenians were estimated for Syria, 105,000 for Lebanon, with a concentration in Beirut, and 180,000 for Iran with Teheran, Tabriz (...)"[7]
  6. "(...) 70,000 Armenians were estimated for Syria, 105,000 for Lebanon, with a concentration in Beirut, and 180,000 for Iran with Teheran, Tabriz (...)"[7]
  7. According to CIA, Lebanon's population is %4 Armenian[13]
  8. "(...) 70,000 Armenians were estimated for Syria, 105,000 for Lebanon, with a concentration in Beirut, and 180,000 for Iran with Teheran, Tabriz (...)"[7]
  9. According to the 2001 census, 99,000 Armenians live in Ukraine.[14]
  10. According to the 2016 census, 63,810 Armenians live in Canada.[15]
  11. Armenians of Istanbul: 40,000–60,000[16][17]
    Hemshin Armenians: 150,000[18]
  12. The Armenian population in Turkey is usually defined as between 60,000 and 80,000, this is because the Hemshin Armenians, who have a population of 150,000, generally are not included.
  13. According to the Statistics Netherlands (CBS), 1,351 people of Armenian nationality live in the Netherlands.[21]
  14. Also known as Kingdom of Greater Armenia.
  15. Also known as Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia or Bagratid Armenia.
  16. Also known as Cilician ArmeniaLesser ArmeniaLittle Armenia or New Armenia, and the previous name Armenian Principality of Cilicia.
  17. Its official name is the Republic of Armenia.
  18. Also commonly referred to as Soviet Armenia or Armenia.
  19. De facto independent state (1990–1991)
  20. Semi-independent state (1920–1922)
    Part of the Transcaucasian SFSR (1922–1936)
    Union republic (1936–1991)[s]