ancient Iranian political and cultural empire from 247 BC to 224 AD

Parthia was an ancient Parthian empire in Asia. It included what is now Iran, part of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.


Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c. 60 BCE.
Languages Parthian language
Religions Zoroastrianism
Capitals Ctesiphon, Hecatompylus
Area Middle East
Existed 238 BCE–228 CE

Parthians were excellent horsemen and archers. In battle, mounted Parthians often discharged their arrows back towards the enemy and pretended to flee.

In 250 BC, the Parthians succeeded in founding an independent kingdom, which in the 1st century BC grew into an empire extending from the Euphrates to the Indus and from the Amu Darya to the Indian Ocean. They expanded by successfully expelling the Seleucids from Persia and establishing the second freat Persian Empire.

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