country in Central Asia

Turkmenistan (/tɜːrkˈmɛnɪstæn/ (audio speaker iconlisten) or /tɜːrkmɛnɪˈstɑːn/ (audio speaker iconlisten); Turkmen: Türkmenistan, pronounced [tʏɾkmønʏˈθːɑːn];[11]), also known as Turkmenia, is a country in South-Central Asia. It has borders with Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan. It has no ocean but it is on the Caspian Sea to the west. The capital of Turkmenistan is Ashghabat.[12] The majority of the country is Muslim at 93%.

Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)[1]
Emblem of Turkmenistan
Motto: Türkmenistan Bitaraplygyň watanydyr
("Turkmenistan is the motherland of Neutrality")[2][3]
Anthem: Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni
("State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan")
Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)
Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)
and largest city
37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333
Official languagesTurkmen[4]
Language of inter-ethnic communicationRussian
Other languagesUzbekKazakhEastern ArmenianAzerbaijaniBalujiKurmanjiUkrainianPersian and others
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential republic
• President
Serdar Berdimuhamedow
Raşit Meredow
Gülşat Mämmedowa
LegislatureAssembly (Mejlis)[6]
Independence from Russia
• Conquest
13 May 1925
• Declared state sovereignty
22 August 1990
• From the Soviet Union
27 October 1991
• Recognized
26 December 1991
18 May 1992
• Total
491,210 km2 (189,660 sq mi)[7] (52nd)
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
6,031,187 [8] (113th)
• Density
10.5/km2 (27.2/sq mi) (221st)
GDP (PPP)2018 estimate
• Total
$112.659 billion[9]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$42.764 billion[9]
• Per capita
Gini (1998)40.8
HDI (2019)Increase 0.715[10]
high · 111th
CurrencyTurkmen new manat (TMT)
Time zoneUTC+05 (TMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+993
ISO 3166 codeTM
Internet TLD.tm

Turkmenistan is a non-aligned and fully neutral country.



Turkmenistan was part of the Soviet Union since its creation, in 1922. At first, Turkmenistan was an autonomous republic within Russian SFSR. In 1925 it was promoted to a Soviet republic. Turkmenistan is an independent country since 1991, after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Saparmurat Niyazov became Turkmenistan’s first president in 1991.



Turkmenistan is divided into five provinces and one capital city district. The provinces are divided into districts which may be either counties or cities.

Division ISO 3166-2 Capital city Area[13] Pop (2005)[13] Key
Turkmenistan Ashgabat 470 km2 (180 sq mi) 871,500
Ahal Province TM-A Anau 97,160 km2 (37,510 sq mi) 939,700 1
Balkan Province TM-B Balkanabat  139,270 km2 (53,770 sq mi) 553,500 2
Daşoguz Province TM-D Daşoguz 73,430 km2 (28,350 sq mi) 1,370,400 3
Lebap Province TM-L Türkmenabat 93,730 km2 (36,190 sq mi) 1,334,500 4
Mary Province TM-M Mary 87,150 km2 (33,650 sq mi) 1,480,400 5



Turkmenistan is one of the driest desert areas in the world. Some places have an average annual precipitation of only 12 mm (0.47 in). The highest temperature recorded in Ashgabat is 48.0 °C (118.4 °F). Kerki, an extreme inland city located on the banks of the Amu Darya river, recorded 51.7 °C (125.1 °F) in July 1983, but this value is unofficial. 50.1C is the highest temperature recorded at Repetek Reserve, recognized as the highest temperature ever recorded in the whole former Soviet Union.



Turkmenistan is the world's 52nd-largest country. It is slightly smaller than Spain and somewhat larger than the US state of California. Over 80% of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert.

The Turkmen shore along the Caspian Sea is 1,768 kilometres (1,099 mi) long. The Caspian Sea is entirely landlocked, with no access to the ocean.

The major cities include Aşgabat, Türkmenbaşy (formerly Krasnovodsk) and Daşoguz.

Turkmenistan has a humid climate. Annual rainfall is low, particularly in summer. Winters are dry and mild. The wettest region in Turkmenistan is Köýtendağ Range. Köýtendağ is in southeastern Turkmenistan on the borders with Uzbekistan.


  1. Hambly, Gavin R.G.; et al. "Turkmenistan". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  2. ""Turkmenistan is the motherland of Neutrality" is the motto of 2020 | Chronicles of Turkmenistan". En.hronikatm.com. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-05-26.
  3. 29.12.2019 (2019-12-29). "Turkmen parliament places Year 2020 under national motto "Turkmenistan – Homeland of Neutrality" – tpetroleum". Turkmenpetroleum.com. Archived from the original on 2020-06-08. Retrieved 2020-05-26. {{cite web}}: |author= has numeric name (help)
  4. "Turkmenistan's Constitution of 2008" (PDF).
  5. "Dual Citizenship". Ashgabat: U.S. Embassy in Turkmenistan. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  6. "Turkmenistan approves new constitution to increase president's powers". 26 September 2008.
  7. Государственный комитет Туркменистана по статистике : Информация о Туркменистане : О Туркменистане Archived 7 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine : Туркменистан — одна из пяти стран Центральной Азии, вторая среди них по площади (491,21 тысяч км2), расположен в юго-западной части региона в зоне пустынь, севернее хребта Копетдаг Туркмено-Хорасанской горной системы, между Каспийским морем на западе и рекой Амударья на востоке.
  8. "World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations".
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 "Turkmenistan". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
  10. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  11. Clark, Larry (1998). Turkmen Reference Grammar. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 50.
  12. "Turkmenistan". Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook. Retrieved 2009-09-04.[permanent dead link]
  13. 13.0 13.1 Statistical Yearbook of Turkmenistan 2000-2004, National Institute of State Statistics and Information of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat, 2005.