Lake Urmia

salt lake in Iran

Lake Urmia (Persian: دریاچه ارومیه) is a salt lake in northwest of Iran. It is in the provinces of East Azarbaijan and West Azarbaijan, and is southwest of the close shaped Caspian Sea. It was the largest lake inside Iran, and the second biggest salt lake of the world. It was the largest lake in the Middle East.[1]

Lake Urmia
from space, 1984
Coordinates37°42′N 45°19′E / 37.700°N 45.317°E / 37.700; 45.317Coordinates: 37°42′N 45°19′E / 37.700°N 45.317°E / 37.700; 45.317
TypeSalt lake
Primary outflowsevaporation
Basin countriesIran
Max. length140 km (87 mi)
Max. width55 km (34 mi)
Surface area5,200 km2 (2,000 sq mi)
Max. depth16 m (52 ft)

The location of Lake Urmia is at 37°42′N 45°19′E / 37.700°N 45.317°E / 37.700; 45.317. It has a surface area of about 5,200 km² (2,000 mile²). At its biggest extent, it is about 140 km (87 miles) long, and 55 km (34 miles) wide. Its deepest point is approximately 16 m (52 ft) deep. It receives water from thirteen rivers coming from the near mountains, and it has no output.[2]

Lake Urmia lies between West Azarbaijan and East Azarbaijan provinces. Tabriz is the biggest city to its east, and Urmia is the biggest city to its west. The shortest way between these cities is to go round the lake. In 1970s a project was started to create a bridge across the lake. This project was canceled when Islamic Revolution happened in 1979.[3] However, the project was started again in 2000s; it is planned to be finished by the end of 2007.

The lake has a very salty water. The concentration of salt is different in each season of the year; it may be 26-28% in the late Autumn.[4]

Lake Urmia is getting smaller and smaller each year. This is because the rivers which bring water to it have become smaller.

History Edit

This lake was historically named Chaychast (Persian: چیچست). Later, it was named Urmia by the Assyrian people. The word Urmia consists of two parts: ur means city and mia means water. Urmia was the name given to the city of Urmia, which is near this lake. The lake was then named Lake Urmia, after the name given to the city. In the early years of the 20th century, it was named Rezaiyeh Lake after the name of Reza Pahlavi, the king of Iran. After the Islamic Revolution, its name was changed back to Urmia Lake.

Life near Lake Urmia Edit

Different creatures live inside or near this lake, including some species of shrimps, amphibians and birds like flamingos and pelicans.

Urmia Lake has shallow borders with lots of mud. Different creatures live inside the mud, including frogs, snails and worms. The mud is said to have good effects in treatment of some diseases of the joints.

Islands Edit

Lake Urmia has 102 islands. Their names are as follows [1]:

Aram, Arash, Ardeshir, Arezu, Ashk, Ashk-Sar, Ashku, Atash, Azar, Azin, Bahram, Bard, Bardak, Bardin, Bastvar, Bon, Bon-Ashk, Borz, Borzin, Borzu, Chak-Tappeh, Cheshmeh-Kenar, Dey, Espir, Espirak, Espiro, Garivak, Giv, Golgun, Gordeh, Gorz, Iran-Nezhad, Jodarreh, Jovin, Jowzar, Kabudan, Kafchehnok, Kakayi-e Bala, Kakayi-ye Miyaneh, Kakayi-e Pain, Kalsang, Kam, Kaman, Kameh, Kariveh, Karkas, Kaveh, Kazem-Dashi, Kenarak, Khersak, Kuchek-Tappeh, Magh, Mahdis, Mahvar, Markid, Mehr, Mehran, Mehrdad, Meshkin, Meydan, Miyaneh, Nadid, Nahan, Nahid, Nahoft, Nakhoda, Navi, Naviyan, Omid, Panah, Penhan, Pishva, Sahran, Samani, Sangan, Sangu, Sarijeh, Sepid, Shabdiz, Shahi (Eslami), Shahin, Shamshiran, Shur-Tappeh, Shush-Tappeh, Siyavash, Siyah-Sang, Siyah-Tappeh, Sorkh, Sorush, Tak, Takht, Takhtan, Tanjeh, Tanjak, Tashbal, Tir, Tus, Zagh, Zar-Kaman, Zarkanak, Zar-Tappeh, Zirabeh.

Footnotes Edit

^ For the Persian writing of these names please follow this link to Persian Wikipedia.

Related pages Edit

References Edit

  1. Dictionary of the Middle Ages - Page 332 by Joseph Reese Strayer
  2. "Urmia Lake: A brief review". Saline Systems. Archived from the original on 2007-12-18. Retrieved 2007-11-19.
  3. "Urmia Lake profile". LakeNet. Retrieved 2007-11-19.
  4. Eimanifar A, Mohebbi F. "Lake Urmia". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-11-15.

Other websites Edit