Safavid dynasty

Iranian dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (Persian: دودمان صفوی), was a native Iranian dynasty,[1] of full or partial Persian[2][3][4] origin. The Safavids established Shia Islam as the official religion of the empire.

The Expansive Realm of Iran
ملک وسیع‌الفضای ایران
The State of Iran
مملکت ایران
1501–1722/1736
Flag of
Flag
(1576–1732)
Imperial Coat of Arms (1501–1722) of
Imperial Coat of Arms
(1501–1722)
Greatest borders during Abbas the Great
Greatest borders during Abbas the Great
CapitalTabriz (1501–1555)
Qazvin (1555–1598)
Isfahan (1598–1736)
Official languagesPersian[5]
GovernmentMonarchy
Shah 
• 1501–1524
Ismail I (first)
• 1732–1736
Abbas III (last)
History 
• Established
1501
• Disestablished
1722/1736
Succeeded by
Afsharid dynasty

The Safavids reasserted the Iranian identity of the region.[6]

Safavid Shahs of IranEdit

Name Portrait Title Reign years
1 Ismail I   Shahanshah 1501–1524
2 Tahmasp I   Shah 1524–1576
3 Ismail II   Shah 1576–1577
4 Mohammad Khodabanda Shah,
Sultan
1578–1587
5 Abbas I   Shah,
Zell'ollah,
Ṣāḥebqerān-e-ʿAlāʾ
1588–1629
6 Safi   Shah 1629–1642
7 Abbas II   Shah 1642– 1666
8 Suleiman I Shah, Sultan 1666–1694
9 Soltan Hoseyn   Shah, Sultan 1694–1722
10 Tahmasp II Shah 1729–1732
11 Abbas III Shah,
Sahib-e-Qorân,
Sultan bar Salatin
1732–1736

ReferencesEdit

SourcesEdit

  • Matthee, Rudi (2005). The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History, 1500-1900. Princeton Universty Press. pp. 18. The Safavids, as Iranians of Kurdish ancestry and of nontribal background (...)
  • Amoretti, Biancamaria Scarcia; Matthee, Rudi (2009). "Ṣafavid Dynasty". In Esposito, John L. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. Of Kurdish ancestry, the Ṣafavids started as a Sunnī mystical order (...)
  • Matthee, Rudi (2008). "SAFAVID DYNASTY". Encyclopædia Iranica. As Persians of Kurdish ancestry and of a non-tribal background, the Safavids (...)
  • Savory, R. M (1970). "Safavid Persia". In P. M. Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis (ed.). The Cambridge History of Islam. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-0-521-29135-4. What does seem certain is that the Safavids were of native Iranian stock, and spoke Āzarī, the form of Turkish used in Āzarbāyjān.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Savory, Roger (2008). "EBN BAZZĀZ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. VIII. Fasc. 1. p. 8. This official version contains textual changes designed to obscure the Kurdish origins of the Safavid family and to vindicate their claim to descent from the Imams.
  • Roemer, H. R (1986). "The Safavid Period". The Cambridge History of Iran. Vol. 6: The Timurid and Safavid Periods. Cambridge University Press. p. 331. ISBN 0-521-20094-6. Depressing though the condition in the country may have been at the time of the fall of Safavids, they cannot be allowed to overshadow the achievements of the dynasty, which was in many respects to prove essential factors in the development of Persia in modern times. These include the maintenance of Persian as the official language (...)
  • Savory, Roger (1980). Iran under the Safavids. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. Why is there such confusion about the origins of this important dynasty, which reasserted Iranian identity and established an independent Iranian state after eight and a half centuries of rule by foreign dynasties?