sovereign state in northern South America

Venezuela is a country in northern South America. Its official name is República Bolivariana de Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela). The official language is Spanish, and its capital is Caracas. Venezuela produces a large amount of oil every year, and has one of the largest oil supplies in the world.

Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela[1]

República Bolivariana de Venezuela  (Spanish)
Coat of arms of Venezuela
Coat of arms
Motto: Ninguno
Traditional: Dios y Federación
[God and the Federation]
Anthem: Gloria al Bravo Pueblo  (in Spanish)
Glory to the Brave People
and largest city
Official languagesSpanish[2]
National languageSpanish[2]
Ethnic groups

GovernmentFederal presidential constitutional republic
• President
Delcy Rodríguez
• from Spain
5 July 1811
• from Gran Colombia
13 January 1830
• Recognized
30 March 1845
20 December 1999
• Total
916,445 km2 (353,841 sq mi) (33rd)
• Water (%)
• 2011 estimate
27,150.095 (43rd)
• 2001 census
• Density
30.2/km2 (78.2/sq mi) (181st)
GDP (PPP)2010 estimate
• Total
$346.973 billion[1]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2010 estimate
• Total
$285.214 billion[1]
• Per capita
Gini (2010)39[2]
HDI (2011)Increase 0.735
high · 73rd[3]
CurrencyBolívar[4][5] (VES)
Time zoneUTC– 4 (VET)
Driving sideright
Calling code+58
ISO 3166 codeVE
^ The "Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela" has been the full official title since the adoption of the new Constitution of 1999, when the state was renamed in honor of Simón Bolívar.
^ The Constitution also recognizes all indigenous languages spoken in the country.
^ Area totals include only Venezuelan-administered territory.

Ancient Venezuelans came from the east, west, south, and north. Christopher Columbus was the first European to set foot on the land, but there were already natives living there for a long time. The Spaniards first conquered Venezuela. Slaves were imported from Africa.

Venezuela's inhabitants are very racially mixed. This comes from the colonial period. When whites (the British, Spaniards, French, etc.) conquered America's territory, they took their black African slaves to America to work. During Venezuela's colonial time, black people did not have any rights. They just worked for food. The native people were taught Roman Catholicism. For a long time, white creoles, people in Venezuela that were descended from Spaniards but considered Venezuela home, headed society. The Venezuelan people did not like that, and started thinking about independence. On July 24, 1823, Venezuela won its independence, led by Simón Bolívar. The current president is disputed.

Venezuela's economy is based on oil, cotton, cocoa, sugar, coffee, and tobacco.

Some other languages spoken in Venezuela are Carib, Guahibo, Warao, Wayuu, Pemon, and Piaroa. Most people are Roman Catholic at 96%, and a small minority is Protestant at 2%.

Venezuela's modern history was shaped by a number of people, including President Romulo Betancourt, who replaced a military dictatorship with a democracy. By the 1970s, Venezuela had become rich off of oil revenue, but it had problems in the 1980s and 1990s. In 1999 Hugo Chávez became president and tried to remake Venezuela as a socialist state. While popular at first, the economic changes Chavez and the next president, Maduro passed caused a massive economic depression in the mid 2010s.

Venezuela is famous for being the home of Angel Falls, the world's tallest waterfall, which is located in the Bolivar state.


The population of Venezuela is about 28,946,101 people.[6] The ethnic groups of the population are:

  • 65%: multiracial.
  • 21%: European.
  • 10%: African.
  • 3%: Amerindian.




  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 "Venezuela". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
  2. "Gini coefficient for the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela". Instituto Nacional de Estadística. 2011.
  3. "Human Development indicator for the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela". United Nations. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  4. "BCV decidió retirar la expresión "soberano" del bolívar actual" (in Spanish). Caracas. El Universal. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
  5. "ISO 4217 amendment number 168" (PDF). Switzerland: SIX Interbank Clearing. 2 August 2018: 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2018. Retrieved 13 August 2019. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. "Para el 30 de octubre de 2011, 28.946.101 Total preliminar de personas en Venezuela".