The term race or racial group refers to dividing the human species according to physical characteristics that are inherited. The most widely used human racial types are those based on visual traits (such as skin color, cranial, facial features, or type of hair).
When classifications of human races were first done, there were relatively few inter-racial marriages. Since then the number of mixed-race people has increased greatly. For them, the old structure does not work well. Official forms, such as the census, usually ask people to describe their ethnic origin. This is a way of saying "what racial group do you think you are?"
More recent genetic studies show that skin color may change a lot over as few as 100 generations, or about 2,500 years.
The 18th and 19th centuriesEdit
- the Caucasian race or white race
- the Mongolian or yellow race
- the American or red race
- the Malayan or brown race
- the Ethiopian or black race.
The early 20th centuryEdit
By about the First World War the scientifically inclined Europeans were sub-dividing the 'White race' in to three or four supposed sub-races, which were:
- Blond hair, white skinned, blue or grey eyes = Aryans/Nordic (e.g. across northern Europe from Russia to northern Britain)
- Dark haired, white skinned, brown eyed = Alpine (e.g. some Russians, English and Welsh).
- Dark haired, suntanned/olive skinned, brown eyed, aquiline nose = Mediterranean (e.g. southern Italians and Maltese).
- Red hair, suntanned/olive or white skinned, brown eyes = Anglo-Celtic/Gaelic (e.g. Scots, Irish and Dutch).
There was much prejudice based upon this way of looking at the world. The Europeans and Orientals both regarded themselves as superior to the other skin colours. Racism, a non-scientific theory or ideology, was that a particular race was superior or inferior. It argued that in the races that make up the human race, there are deep, biologically determined differences. It also states races should live separately and not intermarry. A supporter of racism is called a racist. These attitudes in turn supported the horrors of African slavery, Apartheid, the Jim Crow laws, Nazism and Japanese imperialism.
Mid 20th centuryEdit
The mid 20th century racial classification by American anthropologist Carleton S. Coon, divided humanity into five races:
- Caucasoid (White) race
- Negroid (Black) race
- Capoid (Bushmen/Hottentots) race
- Mongoloid (Oriental/ Amerindian) race
- Australoid (Australian Aborigine and Papuan) race
In his landmark book The Races of Europe, Coon defined the Caucasian Race as including Europe, Central Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, North Africa, and Northeast Africa. His work drew some charges of obsolete thinking or outright racism from a few critics, but some of the terminology he employed continues to be used even today, although the "-oid" suffixes now have in part taken on negative connotations.
In the 21st-Century, Coon's role came under further critical scrutiny when Prof. John P Jackon Jr, noted that the American Coon, "actively aided the segregationist cause in violation of his own standards for scientific objectivity.".
Social Darwinism and raceEdit
It is a social adaptation of the theory of natural selection as proposed by Charles Darwin. Natural selection explains success in various animal populations as the outcome of competition between individual organisms for limited resources. This idea is popularly known as "survival of the fittest", a term first used by Herbert Spencer, not Darwin.
Fascist movements have commonly held social Darwinist views of nations, races, and societies  In Nazi Germany, the Nazis used social Darwinism to promote their racialist idea of the German nation was part of the Aryan race and believed in the competition of races. The Nazis tried to strengthen the ‘Aryan race’ in Germany by murdering those they regarded as inferior. By this they meant Jews, Slavs, Romanis and disabled people.
Race and intelligence (IQ)Edit
Intelligence tests (in the form of scores in standardized tests) were first developed in the early 20th century. The idea at that time was to identify pupils which likely needed more help in a school setting. Since the tests have been developed there was some debate if race had an influence on intelligence. There is no definition of intelligence people generally agree on. In 2018, there was no evidence that could provide a direct link between race (as discussed in this article) and intelligence.
Many intelligence tests rely on the fact, that the person tested has a certain cultural background. Studies have found that certain tests are biased against certain groups of people. Comparing the scores of different tests, for different cultures is problematic. Several researchers have argued that because of cultural differences, standard IQ tests cannot be used in non-industrialized communities.
In biology, a race is a population, a group within a species. The race will show differences from other groups in the species, but not so much as to form a subspecies. A subspecies is a formal category in the biological classification system; a race is not.
Pictures and mapsEdit
A racially segregated bus station in Durham, North Carolina, 1940. The Jim Crow Laws racially separated parts of America between Blacks and Whites.
A group of white people who are voting for white pride and discriminating against other races.
Norwegians were classed as ‘Aryans‘.
Uyghurs were classed as ‘Orientals’.
Amerindians, like the Apache, were classed as ‘Orientals’.
Azeris would have been classed as either 'Orientals' or 'Middle Eastern'
Indians were classed as ‘Indics’.
Gypsies were classed as ’Indics’, They face persecution even in 1920's Hungary. The picture was taken in 1928.
Gambians were classed as ‘Negroids’.
Lapps were also once classified as a supposed early offshoot of the human race.
- Heritable = passed on to succeeding generations
- Bamshad, Michael and Steve E. Olson. "Does race exist?", Scientific American (10 November 2003).
- Keita S.O.Y. et al. 2004 Conceptualizing human variation. Nature Genetics 36, S17-S20 
- Your family may once have been a different color by Robert Krulwich. Morning Edition, National Public Radio. 2 Feb 2009.
- Huxley T.H. 1870. On the geographical distribution of the chief modifications of mankind Journal of the Ethnological Society of London
- The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach. Google Books The anthropological treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
- Carleton S. Coon 1962. The origin of races New York: Knopf.
- "Race" in The American Heritage Book of English Usage A practical and authoritative guide to contemporary English.
- John P Jackon Jr 2001.“In ways unacademical”: the reception of Carleton S. Coon's The Origin of Races. Journal of the History of Biology.
- Johnson, D. Paul (2008). "The historical background of social darwinism". Contemporary Sociological Theory. Berlin: Springer. p. 492. ISBN 0387765212.
In the social realm the competitive struggle may be among individuals or among different groups within society, different societies, or different racial or ethnic populations.
- Payne, Stanley G. 1945. pp. 485-486
- Hawkins, Mike. 1997. Social Darwinism in European and American thought, 1860-1945: nature as model and nature as threat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 282 & 284
- Cronshaw et al. 2006, p. 278
- Verney et al. 2005
- Borsboom 2006
- Shuttleworth-Edwards et al. 2004
- Richardson 2004
- Hunt & Wittmann 2008
- Irvine 1983
- Irvine & Berry 1988 a collection of articles by several authors discussing the limits of assessment by intelligence tests in different communities in the world. In particular, Reuning (1988) describes the difficulties in devising and administering tests for Kalahari bushmen.