Karl Ernst von Baer

Baltic German scientist from Estonia (1792-1876)

Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer, Edler von Huthorn (Russian: Карл Эрнст фон Бэр; 28 February [O.S. 17 February] 1792 – 28 November [O.S. 16 November] 1876) was an Estonian scientist and explorer. Baer is also known in Russia as Karl Maksimovich Baer (Russian: Карл Макси́мович Бэр).

Karl Ernst von Baer
Voyages de la Commission scientifique du Nord, en Scandinavie, en Laponie, au Spitzberg et aux Feröe - no-nb digibok 2009040211001-118.jpg
Born(1792-02-17)17 February 1792
Died16 November 1876(1876-11-16) (aged 84)
Dorpat, Russian Empire
CitizenshipRussian Empire
Alma materImperial University of Dorpat
Known forThe discovery of the mammal egg cell; exploring European Russia and Scandinavia
Scientific career
FieldsBiology, embryology, geology, meteorology, geography
InstitutionsImperial University of Dorpat, University of Königsberg, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Geographical Society

Baer was a naturalist, biologist, geologist, meteorologist, geographer, and a founding father of embryology. He was an explorer of European Russia and Scandinavia. He was a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a co-founder of the Russian Geographical Society, and the first president of the Russian Entomological Society, making him a distinguished Baltic German scientist.


  1. K. J. Betteridge (1981). "An historical look at embryo transfer". Reproduction. The Journal of the Society for Reproduction and Fertility. 62: 1–13. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0620001. Three years later, the Estonian, Karl Ernst von Baer, finally found the true mammalian egg in a pet dog (von Baer, 1827).
  2. J.M.S. Pearce, M.D. (2010). "Evolution from recapitulation theory to Neural Darwinism". Hektoen International. A Journal of Medical Humanities. 2 (2). Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2016.