Karl Ernst von Baer

Baltic-German scientist (1792-1876)

Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer, Edler von Huthorn (Russian: Карл Эрнст фон Бэр; 28 February [O.S. 17 February] 1792 – 28 November [O.S. 16 November] 1876) was an Estonian scientist and explorer. Baer is also known in Russia as Karl Maksimovich Baer (Russian: Карл Макси́мович Бэр).

Karl Ernst von Baer
Born(1792-02-17)17 February 1792
Died16 November 1876(1876-11-16) (aged 84)
Dorpat, Russian Empire
CitizenshipRussian Empire
Alma materImperial University of Dorpat
Known forThe discovery of the mammal egg cell; exploring European Russia and Scandinavia
Scientific career
FieldsBiology, embryology, geology, meteorology, geography
InstitutionsImperial University of Dorpat, University of Königsberg, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Geographical Society

Baer was a naturalist, biologist, geologist, meteorologist, geographer, and a founding father of embryology.

He was an explorer of European Russia and Scandinavia. He was a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a co-founder of the Russian Geographical Society, and the first president of the Russian Entomological Society.


  1. K. J. Betteridge (1981). "An historical look at embryo transfer". Reproduction. The Journal of the Society for Reproduction and Fertility. 62 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0620001. PMID 7014855. S2CID 33779912. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 18 December 2016. Three years later, the Estonian, Karl Ernst von Baer, finally found the true mammalian egg in a pet dog (von Baer, 1827).
  2. J.M.S. Pearce, M.D. (2010). "Evolution from recapitulation theory to Neural Darwinism". Hektoen International. A Journal of Medical Humanities. 2 (2). Archived from the original on 29 March 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2016.