The Caucasian race (also known as Caucasoid or West-Eurasian) is a term used for a person belonging to a racial group that includes people from Europe, North Africa, South Asia, West Asia, Central Asia and parts of the Horn of Africa as well as the Ainu and their Jōmon ancestors of northern Japan. German anthropologists in the late 18th century applied this name because they thought people from the Caucasus Mountains were the best examples of the race. The term is used in anthropologic and genetic studies. The Causcian race (also known as caucasoid or europid) was regarded as a biological taxon, in various historical race classifications and is today used in anthropologic and genetic studies.
In biological anthropology, Caucasoid is used as an term for the people these different regions, with a focus on genetics, skeletal anatomy, and especially cranial morphology, without regard to skin tone. Ancient and modern "Caucasoid" populations are not exclusively "white," but range in complexion from white-skinned to dark brown. According to George W. Gill and other modern forensic anthropologists, physical traits of Caucasoid crania can be distinguished from those of the people from Mongoloid and Negroid racial groups based on the shapes of specific diagnostic anatomical features. They assert that they can identify a Caucasoid skull with an accuracy of up to 95%.
- The Races of Europe by Carlton Stevens Coon. From Chapter XI: The Mediterranean World - Introduction: "This third racial zone stretches from Spain across the Straits of Gibraltar to Morocco, and thence along the southern Mediterranean shores into Arabia, East Africa, Mesopotamia, and the Persian highlands; and across Afghanistan into India."
- Old World sources of the first New World human inhabitants: A comparative craniofacial view - C. Loring Brace et al. 2001
- Rathee, Suresh Kanta; Pathmanathan, Gayathiri; Bulbeck, David; Raghavan, Pathmanathan (2013). "Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities". International Journal of Evolutionary Biology. PMID 24455409. Retrieved 2019-06-06.
- Blumenbach, Johann Friedrich; Bendyshe, Thomas; Marx, Karl Friedrich Heinrich; Flourens, Pierre; Wagner, Rudolph; Hunter, John (1865). The Anthropological Treatises of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach ... Anthropological Society.
- Gill, George W. 1998. "Craniofacial Criteria in the Skeletal Attribution of Race. " In Forensic Osteology: Advances in the Identification of Human Remains. (2nd edition) Reichs, Kathleen l(ed.), pp. 293–315.