country in West Africa

Ghana (formerly the Gold Coast) is a country in West Africa. Thirty-one million people live there; its capital is Accra. It is in Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Côte d'Ivoire and Togo.

Republic of Ghana
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"[1]
and largest city
5°33′N 0°12′W / 5.550°N 0.200°W / 5.550; -0.200
Official languagesEnglish
Akan, Ewe, Dagomba (Dagbani), Dangme, Dagaare, Ga, Nzema, Gonja, Kasem[2]
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Nana Akufo-Addo
Mahamudu Bawumia
• Declared
6 March 1957
• Republic
1 July 1960
• Current Constitution
28 April 1992
• Total
239,567 km2 (92,497 sq mi) (80th)
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
31,072,940[3] (47th)
• 2010 census
• Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (103rd)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
$226 billion[5]
• Per capita
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
$69.757 billion[5]
• Per capita
Gini (2012)42.4[6]
HDI (2018)Increase 0.596[7]
medium · 142nd
CurrencyGhana cedi (GH₵) (GHS)
Time zoneUTC0 (GMT)
Driving sideright
Calling code+233
ISO 3166 codeGH

Since Ghana is near the Equator, the climate is very warm and tropical. The eastern coastal belt is warm and comparatively dry. South west corner is hot and humid. The north is hot and dry. Lake Volta (the world’s largest artificial lake) extends through eastern Ghana.

Most Ghanaians have access to primary and secondary education. Ghana has a 6-year primary school system. There are 6 public universities and 10 private universities.

Ghana has many natural resources. The main exports are gold, timber, cocoa, diamonds, and more. Ghana has one of the strongest economies in Africa.

Ghana used “Cedi” for their currency but in July 2007, “Ghanaian Cedi” became the new currency. 1 Ghana Cedi is equal to 1000 Cedi. 1 US dollar is currently exchanged at about 8 Ghana Cedi.


Beach in Ghana

Ghana is a country located on the Gulf of Guinea. It is only a few degrees north of the Equator. This gives it a warm climate. The country has an area of 238,500 km2 (92,085 sq mi). It is surrounded by Togo to the east, Côte d'Ivoire to the west, Burkina Faso to the north and the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) to the south.

The country has flat plains, low hills and a few rivers. Ghana can be divided into five different geographical regions. The coastline is mostly a low, sandy shore backed by plains and scrub. It is crossed by several rivers and streams. The northern part of the country has high plains. Southwest and south central Ghana is made up of a forested plateau region with the Ashanti uplands and the Kwahu Plateau. The hilly Akuapim-Togo ranges are found along the country's eastern border.

The Volta Basin also takes up most of central Ghana. Ghana's highest point is Mount Afadjato. It is 885 m (2,904 ft) and is found in the Akwapim-Togo Ranges.

There are two main seasons in Ghana: the wet and the dry seasons. Northern Ghana has its rainy season from March to November. The south, including the capital Accra, has the season from April to mid-November.

Regions and districts


Ghana is divided into 16 administrative regions, sub-divided into 275 districts:

Regions of Ghana Area (km2) Regional capitals
Ashanti Region 24,389 Kumasi  
Ghana regional map
prior to 2019 changes
Bono Region 39,557 Sunyani
Ahafo Region Goaso
Bono East Region Techiman
Central Region 9,826 Cape Coast
Eastern Region 19,323 Koforidua
Greater Accra Region 3,245 Accra
Northern Region 70,384 Tamale
Savannah Region Damongo
North East Region Nalerigu
Upper East Region 8,842 Bolgatanga
Upper West Region 18,476 Wa
Volta Region 20,570 Ho
Oti Region Dambai
Western Region 23,941 Sekondi-Takoradi
Western North Region Wiawso



In 1482, Portuguese colonists from the expedition of Diogu de Azambuja were first on the coast who built Elmina Castle, then Aksim Fortresses, Shama and others. The Portuguese exported gold (the country was then called the Golden Beach) and slaves. By the middle of the 19th century, the United Kingdom pushed out from the other European competitors from the Golden coast.



Football is the most popular sport. The national men's football team is known as the Black Stars. The under-20 team is known as the Black Satellites. Ghana has been in many championships including the African Cup of Nations, the FIFA World Cup and the FIFA U-20 World Cup. In the 2010 FIFA World Cup, Ghana became the third African country to reach the quarter final stage.[8] There are several club football teams in Ghana, which play in the Ghana Premier League and Division One League. Both are managed by the Ghana Football Association.

The country also has quite a few quality boxers such as Azumah Nelson a three time world champion, Nana Yaw Konadu also a three time world champion, Ike Quartey, and Joshua Clottey.[9]

There are also notable games like Oware,Dame and the others which traces back to their Ancestry background.

Notable people



  1. "". Archived from the original on 2010-02-01. Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  2. "Ghana -Language and Religion". Embassy of Ghana in Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  3. "2020 Population Projection by Sex, 2010–2020". Ghana Statistical Service. Archived from the original on 24 April 2018. Retrieved 2 May 2018.
  4. Antoinette I. Mintah (2010). "2010 Provisional Census Results Out". 4 February 2011. Population Division, Ghana Government. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". IMF. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  6. "GINI index (World Bank estimate)". World Bank. Archived from the original on 25 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  7. "Human Development Report 2019". United Nations Development Programme. 10 December 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 May 2020. Retrieved 10 December 2019.
  8. "USA 1–2 Ghana (aet)". 26 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
  9. "Ms.Ghana Culture". Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2012.

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