Brunei

sovereign state in Southeast Asia

Brunei (officially called Brunei Darussalam, State of Brunei or the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace) is a country in Southeast Asia. It is north of Malaysia on the island of Borneo. The country is rather landlocked by Malaysia. To the north is the South China Sea and the Philippines to the northeast. The capital of Brunei is Bandar Seri Begawan. The country is small and has a small population. The leader of the country is the Sultan of Brunei. Due to the sale of his oil, he is one of the richest people in the world. The official religion in Brunei is Islam. There are also minorities of people who follow Buddhism or Animism. Brunei's official language and national language is Malay. Brunei is one of the smallest Muslim countries in the world.

State of Brunei
Negara Brunei  (Malay)
Emblem of Brunei
Emblem
Motto: 
  • الدائمون المحسنون بالهدى‎
  • Ad-dāʾimūna al-muḥsinūna bi-l-hudā
  • (Sentiasa membuat kebajikan dengan petunjuk Allah)
  • Always in service with God's guidance
Anthem: 
Location of  Brunei  (green)

in the ASEAN  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Bandar Seri Begawan
4°53.417′N 114°56.533′E / 4.890283°N 114.942217°E / 4.890283; 114.942217
Official languageMalay[1]
Other languages
and dialects[3][4]
Official scripts
Ethnic groups
(2023)[5]
Religion
(2023)[5]
Demonym(s)Bruneian
GovernmentUnitary Islamic absolute monarchy
Hassanal Bolkiah
• Crown Prince and Senior Minister
Al-Muhtadee Billah
Abdul Aziz Juned
LegislatureLegislative Council of Brunei[a]
Formation
2000BC–1368
• Sultanate
1368–1888
17 September 1888
1 January 1984
• Admitted to the United Nations
21 September 1984
Area
• Total
5,765[9] km2 (2,226 sq mi) (164th)
• Water (%)
8.6
Population
• 2023 estimate
455,858[10] (175th)
• 2023 census
445,400
• Density
72.11/km2 (186.8/sq mi) (134th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $60.547 billion[11] (135th)
• Per capita
Increase $70,609[11] (8th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $37.152 billion[11] (122nd)
• Per capita
Increase $32,153[11] (21st)
HDI (2023)Increase 0.841[12]
very high · 47th
CurrencyBrunei dollar (BND)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Brunei Standard Time)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+673[c]
ISO 3166 codeBN
Internet TLD.bn[13]
  1. ^ Also 080 from East Malaysia.

History change

From the 14th to the 16th centuries Brunei Darussalam was the seat of a powerful sultanate extending over Sabah, Sarawak and the southern Philippines. Thus, the current Sultan represents one of the oldest continuously ruling dynasties in the world. By the 19th century, the Brunei Darussalam Empire had been whittled away by wars, piracy and the colonial expansion of European powers.

In 1847, the sultan ended a treaty with Great Britain and in 1888 Brunei Darussalam officially became a British protectorate. In 1906, the Residential System was established in Brunei Darussalam. A British Resident was nominated as a representative of the British government to advise the sultan in all matters except Malay customs, traditions and Islamic religion.

The 1959 Agreement established a written constitution which gave Brunei Darussalam internal self-government. In 1971, the agreement was amended and revised to assert full internal independence except defence and external affairs.

On June 5, 1966 His Highness Sultan Haji Sir Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien abdicated in favour of his son Pengiran Muda Mahkota Hassanal Bolkiah. On January 1, 1984 Brunei Darussalam resumed full independence and the Sultan took office as Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Home Affairs Minister, presiding over a cabinet of six. In October 1986, the cabinet was expanded to 11 members, with His Majesty relinquishing the portfolios of Finance and Home Affairs and taking over the Defence portfolio which his late father had held since 1984. In 1988 another reshuffle brought about the elevation of the deputy minister to a full minister and the creation of the Ministry of Industry and Primary Resources designed to boost the country's development.[14]

In spite of the sizable non-Muslim population (about 1/3 of the population) and criticism by the international community, the Sultan still announced Brunei's adoption of Sharia law in 2013 to fully enforce on the Muslim majority and partially enforce on non-Muslims.[15] It was expected to take full effect in 2016 after 3 phases, and had begun partial enforcement in its first phase in 2014. It is the first country in East and Southeast Asia to practice Sharia law.[source?]

Divisions change

Brunei is divided into four districts (daerahs)[16] and 38 subdistricts (mukims).[17]

No. District Capital Population (2011 census) Area (km2)
1. Belait Kuala Belait 60,744 2,724
2. Brunei-Muara   Bandar Seri Begawan 279,924 571
3. Temburong Pekan Bangar 8,852 1,304
4. Tutong Pekan Tutong 43,852 1,166

The daerah of Temburong is physically separated from the rest of Brunei by the Malaysian state of Sarawak.

Over 90% of Brunei's total population lives in 15 of the 38 mukims.

Cities change

 
Map of Brunei

Officially, there are no places in Brunei that have "city" status. Some of the important places are:

  • Bandar Seri Begawan (Pop. ~181,500, Bandar Seri Begawan Municipal Council)
  • Kuala Belait (Pop. ~38,000, Bandar Seri Begawan Municipal Council)
  • Seria (Pop. ~35,400, Kuala Belait/Seria Municipal Council)
  • Jerudong (Pop. ~30,000, Kuala Belait/Seria Municipal Council)
  • Tutong (Pop. ~27,500, Tutong Municipal Council)
  • Bangar - administrative centre of the Temburong district
  • Muara Town - has the only deep sea port of Brunei
  • Sukang
  • Panaga

Revenue change

Brunei gets most of its income by selling oil. In 2011 the IMF said that Brunei was one of two countries (the other being Libya) with no public debt.[18]

Currency change

Brunei uses the Brunei Ringgit to trade. However, the Singapore dollar can be used here as both currencies are of the same value.

Related pages change

References change

  1. Deterding, David; Athirah, Ishamina (22 July 2016). "Brunei Malay". Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 47. Cambridge University Press: 99–108. doi:10.1017/S0025100316000189. S2CID 201819132. Archived from the original on 15 May 2022. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  2. Writing contest promotes usage, history of Jawi script Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. The Brunei Times (22 October 2010)
  3. "Brunei". Ethnologue. 19 February 1999. Archived from the original on 21 April 2021. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  4. "Call to add ethnic languages as optional subject in schools". Archived from the original on 19 November 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Population by Religion, Sex and Census Year". Archived from the original on 1 April 2021. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  6. "Brunei Darussalam" (PDF). United Nations (Human Rights Council): 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  7. "Brunei: Freedom in the World 2020 Country Report". Freedom House. Archived from the original on 27 August 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  8. "Brunei". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 28 September 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  9. "Brunei-Muara District" (PDF). Information.gov.bn (2nd ed.). Information Department, Prime Minister's Office, Brunei Darussalam. 2010. p. 8. ISBN 99917-49-24-1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 June 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2024.
  10. "Population". Department of Economic Planning and Development. Archived from the original on 20 March 2017. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Brunei)". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Archived from the original on 1 November 2023. Retrieved 17 October 2023.
  12. "Human Development Report 2023/2024" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 13 March 2024. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2024. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  13. "Delegation Record for .BN". IANA. Archived from the original on 9 September 2015. Retrieved 6 November 2015.
  14. "Home - Jabatan Perdana Menteri". www.jpm.gov.bn.
  15. "Brunei adopts sharia law amid international outcry". CNN. May 2014.
  16. District Statistics (2010). Brunei Darussalam Statistical Yearbook (PDF). Brunei Government. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-07.
  17. "Background Note: Brunei". US Department of State. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  18. AHA Centre. "Profile of Brunei Darussalam" (PDF).

Other websites change

  •   Media related to Brunei at Wikimedia Commons
  •   Brunei travel guide from Wikivoyage


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