Philippines

sovereign state in Southeast Asia

The Philippines (/ˈfɪlɪpiːnz/ (listen); Filipino: Pilipinas locally [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs] or Filipinas locally [fɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas), is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It is in the western Pacific Ocean, and is about 7,640 islands, that are in three main geographical groups from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest, and shares sea borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia and Brunei to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. The area of the Philippines is 300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi) and, as of 2020, had a population of around 109 million people, making it the world's twelfth-most largest country by number of people. The Philippines is a multinational state, with diverse ethnicities and cultures throughout its islands. Manila is the nation's capital. The largest city is Quezon City. Both are within the urban area of Metro Manila.

Republic of the Philippines

Republika ng Pilipinas  (Filipino)
Coat of arms of the Philippines
Coat of arms
Motto: 
"Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa"[1]
"For God, People, Nature, and Country"
Anthem: Lupang Hinirang
Chosen Land
Great Seal
Great Seal of the Philippines
Dakilang Sagisag ng Pilipinas  (Filipino)
Great Seal of the Philippines
Location of the Philippines
CapitalManilaa
14°35′N 120°58′E / 14.583°N 120.967°E / 14.583; 120.967
Largest cityQuezon City
14°38′N 121°02′E / 14.633°N 121.033°E / 14.633; 121.033
Official languages
Recognized regional languages
National languageFilipino
Other recognized languagesOfficial and national sign languageb
Filipino Sign Language
Auxiliary languagesc
Ethnic groups
(2015)
Demonym(s)Filipino
(masculine or neutral)
Filipina
(feminine)
Pinoy
(colloquial masculine or neutral)
Pinay
(colloquial feminine)
Philippine
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Leni Robredo
Franklin Drilon
Vicente Sotto III
Lord Allan Velasco
Diosdado Peralta
LegislatureCongress
Senate
House of Representatives
Formation of the republic 
June 12, 1898
• Treaty of Paris (1898) / Spanish cessiond
December 10, 1898
January 21, 1899
March 24, 1934
May 14, 1935
July 4, 1946
February 2, 1987
Area
• Total
300,000[2][3] km2 (120,000 sq mi) (72nd)
• Water (%)
0.61[4] (inland waters)
• Land
300,000
Population
• 2015 census
100,981,437[5] (13th)
• Density
336/km2 (870.2/sq mi) (47th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
• Total
Decrease $933.913 billion[6] (27th)
• Per capita
Decrease $8,573[6] (115th)
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
• Total
Decrease $367.362 billion[6] (31st)
• Per capita
Decrease $3,484[6] (119th)
Gini (2015)Positive decrease 40.1[7]
medium · 44th
HDI (2017)Increase 0.699[8]
medium · 113th
CurrencyPeso (₱) (PHP)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+8 (not observed)
Date format
  • mm-dd-yyyy
  • dd-mm-yyyy (AD)
Driving sideright[9]
Calling code+63
ISO 3166 codePH
Internet TLD.ph
  1. ^ While Manila is designated as the nation's capital, the seat of government is the National Capital Region, commonly known as "Metro Manila", of which the city of Manila is a part.[10][11] Many national government institutions aside from Malacañang Palace and some agencies/institutions are located within the NCR.
  2. ^ Since March 10, 1945[12][13]

Negritos, some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Adoption of Animism, Hinduism and Islam established island-kingdoms called Kedatuans, Rajahnates and Sultanates. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. Spanish settlement through Mexico, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. During this time, Catholicism became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. In 1896, the Philippine Revolution began, which then became entwined with the 1898 Spanish–American War. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, while Filipino rebels declared the First Philippine Republic. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during World War II. Following liberation, the Philippines became independent in 1946. Since then, the unitary sovereign state has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by the People Power Revolution.

It is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to being based more on services and manufacturing. The Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the East Asia Summit. The Philippines' position as an island country on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the country prone to earthquakes and typhoons. The country has a variety of natural resources and a globally significant level of biodiversity. This low-lying island geography makes the country vulnerable to climate change, increasing risk from typhoons and sea level rise.

HistoryEdit

See History of the Philippines for the full history information.

PoliticsEdit

The government of the Philippines, is similar to the Government of the United States of America. The President of the Philippines works as the head of state, the head of government, and the commander in chief of the Military of the Philippines and the armed forces. The president is elected by voting just as in America except by popular vote as there is no electoral voting. He stays as the president for 6 years. He is the leader of the cabinet.

The bicameral Philippine legislature, the Congress of the Philippines, consists of the Senate of the Philippines and the House of Representatives of the Philippines; members of both are elected by popular vote. There are 24 senators serving 6 years in the Senate while the House of Representatives consists of no more than 250 congressmen each serving 3-year terms.

The judiciary branch of the government is headed by the Supreme Court of the Philippines, which has a Chief Justice as its head and 14 Associate Justices, all appointed by the president.

The Philippines is a founding and prominent member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). It is also an active participant of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), a member of the Group of 24 and one of the 51 founding members of the United Nations on October 24, 1945.

Regions and StatesEdit

Local Government. The parts of Philippines are "local government units" (LGUs). The province is the top unit. There are 79 provinces in the country (2002). In the provinces there are cities and municipalities (towns). In these municipalities there are smaller barangays (villages). The barangay is the smallest local government unit.

All provinces are in 17 regions for administration (organisation). Most government offices have regional offices for the provinces. The regions do not have a separate local government, except for the Muslim Mindanao and Cordillera regions, which have their own power (autonomous government).

RegionsEdit

Region Designation Regional center
Ilocos Region Region I San Fernando, La Union
Cagayan Valley Region II Tuguegarao, Cagayan
Central Luzon Region III San Fernando, Pampanga
CALABARZON ¹ Region IV-A Laguna, Quezon
MIMAROPA ¹ Region IV-B Calapan, Oriental Mindoro
Bicol Region Region V Legazpi, Albay
Western Visayas Region VI Iloilo City
Central Visayas Region VII Cebu City
Eastern Visayas Region VIII Tacloban
Zamboanga Peninsula Region IX Pagadian, Zamboanga del Sur
Northern Mindanao Region X Cagayan de Oro
Davao Region Region XI Davao City
SOCCSKSARGEN ¹ Region XII Koronadal, South Cotabato
Caraga Region XIII Butuan
Bangsamoro BARMM Cotabato City
Cordillera Administrative Region CAR Baguio
National Capital Region NCR Manila

¹ Names are capitalized because they are acronyms, containing the names of the constituent provinces or cities.

GeographyEdit

The Philippines has 7,701 islands. Together there are about 300,000 square kilometers of land. The islands are in three groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Luzon is the largest island and Mindanao is the second largest. The Visayas are the group of islands in the central part of the Philippines. The busy port of Manila, on Luzon, is the country's capital and it is the second-largest city after Quezon City. Cebu City and Davao City are the largest cities in Visayas and Mindanao, respectively.

The climate is hot, humid (there is a lot of water in the air), and tropical. The average temperature all year is around 26.5 °Celsius. Filipinos usually say there are three seasons: Tag-init or Tag-araw (the hot season or summer from March to May), Tag-ulan (the rainy season from June to November), and Tag-lamig (the cold season from December to February).

The Philippines is in the Pacific Ring of Fire (zone of frequent earthquakes and volcanic eruptions). Most of the mountainous islands had a lot of tropical rainforests a long time ago. They started as volcanoes. The highest place is Mount Apo on Mindanao at 2,954 m. Many volcanoes in the country, for example Mount Mayon, are active. The country also has about 19 typhoons per year.

Taal Volcano is an island in Taal Lake. It is in an ancient caldera in Batangas Province. It is about 2 hours by bus going south from Manila. The jump-off point in Talisay is suitable for day trips and overnighters.

ProblemsEdit

There are many environmental problems in the Philippines. One of them is overfishing in many areas, which lead to pitiful catches. Another problem is that only ten percent of sewage is treated and cleaned, while the other 90% is dumped back to nature and the ocean, which leads to pollution. Deforestation is a serious problem, and after decades of cutting down forests, illegal logging and forest fires, there is only 3% left of original forest cover. Forest losses have also affected the Philippines with serious soil erosion, which is threatening the Philippines biodiversity.[14]

EconomyEdit

The Philippines is a developing country. In 1998 the Philippine economy — a mixture of agriculture, light industry, and support services — deteriorated because of the effects of the Asian financial crisis and poor weather conditions. The economy's growth fell to 0.6% in 1998 from 5% in 1997, but recovered to about 3% in 1999 and 4% in 2000. As of 2012, it's estimated at 6.6%.[15]

The government has promised to continue its economic reforms to help the Philippines match the pace of development in the newly industrialized countries of Southeast Asia. The strategies are improving infrastructure, fixing the tax system to help the government income, supporting deregulation (to remove government control) and privatization of the economy, and increasing trade within the region. Future prospects depend heavily on the economic performance of the three major trading partners, China, the United States and Japan.

PeopleEdit

Around 94 million people live in the Philippines as of 2010. Most people in the Philippines are of Austronesian stock. The ethnic Chinese, who have helped run businesses since the 9th century, also live in the country. Its now 105 million people there. The Negritos live in the mountains of Luzon and Visayas. Luzon has a lot of mestizo people, a Spanish term for someone of mixed Hispanic and native blood.

The people of the Philippines are known as Filipinos. Filipinos are divided into many groups, the three largest are the Tagalogs, Cebuanos, and the Ilocanos. When the Philippines was a colony, the term "Filipino" used to mean the Spanish and Spanish-mixed minority. But now everyone who is a citizen/national of the Philippines is called "Filipino". Even then, it is still has the most diverse ethnic groups in Asia, the other being Indonesia. People also call Filipinos "Pinoy" for short.

LanguagesEdit

Filipino and English are the official languages. Filipino is based largely on Tagalog, a native language spoken in Metro Manila and neighboring provinces. The Filipino language, is a cousin of the Malay language. Other local languages and dialects are Cebuano and Ilocano and many others. English is used in government, schools and business. Other languages are Chinese which is spoken by the ethnic Chinese population and the Chinese-Filipinos. Most of the Muslims living deep in southern Mindanao and the smaller islands off of the southern Philippine mainland near Malaysia's northeastern tip. They also speak Arabic as a second language but to a very small extent. Spanish, once the official language of the Philippines in the 1970s is also spoken by a notable minority of Filipinos.

CultureEdit

Before the Spanish arrived, the Filipinos did not think of themselves as one culture. Most of the Philippines were Buddhist, Muslim and Hindu. The Spaniards came in 1565, and brought with them Spanish culture. They soon spread to the islands making forts and schools, preaching Christianity, and converting most of the native people to the Catholic religion. When the United States colonized the islands in 1898, the Americans brought with them their own culture, which has the strongest influence up to now. This makes the Philippines the most Westernized country in eastern Asia. The Spanish culture in the Philippines though, is not directly from Spain but from Mexico, since the Philippines was ruled by Spain, through Mexico. It was governed from Mexico City which explains much of the Spanish influence in the Philippines that one could only find in Mexico and not in Spain.[16] Also, the Spanish that was spoken in the Philippines was Mexican Spanish, not European Spanish. A lot of the foods in the Philippines can also be found in Mexico. Filipinos, as a tradition, usually eat with hands, like that of Malay tradition. And most of Filipino cuisine is also of Malay influence for the most part.[17]

Each year major festivities called barrio fiestas are held. They commemorate the Patron saints of the towns, villages and regional districts. The festivities includes church services, street parades, fireworks displays, feasts, dance/music contests, and cockfights. Circumcision of males is a tradition and a big cultureal event, nearly 91,7% are circumcised.

ReligionEdit

Most of the people in the Philippines are Christians. About 92% of the people are Christians. Most people in the Philippines belong to the Roman Catholic faith (70%). A sizable percentage of the people are Protestants (many diverse Christian denominations) (17%), Iglesia ni Cristo (2%), Muslims (5-10%), Buddhists (2%). There are also some Hindus and some other minor religions with fewer adherents (6.6%).

Further readingEdit

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. "Republic act no. 8491". Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on March 8, 2014. Retrieved March 8, 2014.
  2. "Philippine Population Density (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". September 1, 2016.
  3. "World Development Indicators". databank.worldbank.org.
  4. "East & Southeast Asia :: Philippines". The World Factbook. Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. October 28, 2009. Archived from the original on July 19, 2015. Retrieved November 7, 2009.
  5. "Highlights of the Philippine Population 2015 Census of Population". www.psa.gov.ph. Philippine Statistics Authority.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "IMF Philippines". International Monetary Fund.
  7. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved March 2, 2011.
  8. "Human Development Indices and Indicators: 2018 Statistical update" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. September 15, 2018. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
  9. Lucas, Brian (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Retrieved February 22, 2009.
  10. "Presidential Decree No. 940, s. 1976". Manila: Malacanang. Retrieved April 4, 2015.
  11. "Quezon City Local Government – Background". Quezon City Local Government. Archived from the original on August 20, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
  12. "Executive Order No. 34, s. 1945". Manila: Malacanang. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  13. Lucas, Brian (August 2005). "Which side of the road do they drive on?". Retrieved February 22, 2009.
  14. "WWF Philippines office - WWF". wwf.panda.org.
  15. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
  16. "The Spaniards as Colonial Masters in the Philippines". www.philippine-history.org.
  17. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-02-03. Retrieved 2012-02-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Other websitesEdit