Philip II of Spain

16th-century King of Spain, Portugal, Naples and Sicily; King consort of England, lived 1527-1598

Philip II of Spain (21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was, starting in 1556, king of Spain, and Burgundy, Netherlands, Naples, Sicily, and Spanish America. He was born in Valladolid and was the only son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his wife to live until he was an adult. He was strongly Catholic.

Phillip II of Spain
King of Spain
King of Spain
Reign16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598
Coronation16 January 1556
PredecessorCharles V, Holy Roman Emperor
SuccessorPhillip III of Spain
Co-MonarchMary Tudor of Greenwich (1556 – 1558)
BornFelipe of Spain
21 May 1527
Palacio de Pimentel, Valladolid, Kingdom of Spain
DiedSeptember 13, 1598(1598-09-13) (aged 71)
El Escorial, San Lorenzo de El Escorial, Kingdom of Spain
Burial13 September 1598
El Escorial
HouseHouse of Hapsburg
FatherCharles V, Holy Roman Emperor
MotherIsabella of Portugal
ReligionRoman Catholicism
SignaturePhillip II of Spain's signature

His rule was filled with troubles since his war against the Dutch Republic was expensive and unsuccessful, and his Spanish Armada was defeated and destroyed, which caused him to be harsh to his subjects.

Childhood change

For the first seven years of his life, Philip moved between different castles with his mother. In 1534 he moved into a private house in Salamanca to start his schooling. His mother died in 1539 and he took her body to Granada, where his great-grandparents Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella were buried. He left Spain in 1547 and moved to the Netherlands, where his father's family was from. His father wanted him to become more European but the people there thought he was too cold and serious.

Marriages and children change

  • He married his cousin, Maria of Portugal, in (1543), They were both 16 years old. She gave him a son, Don Carlos of Spain (1545-1568) but died a few days later.
  • Philip wanted to marry an English queen, Queen Elizabeth I of England, who was Protestant. However, she refused to marry him.
  • Instead, he married her Catholic half-sister, Queen Mary I of England in 1554. This made him King Consort while she lived. Her people did not like the marriage, and Philip saw it only as a political move. On January 16, 1556, Philip became King of Spain when his father gave up the throne but Philip chose to stay out of the country until his father died, two years later. Mary died in 1558 without children.
  • Philip believed his son, Don Carlos had planned his death, so he put Don Carlos in jail. The prince died soon after, so Philip's enemies said that he had ordered someone to kill him. Some evidence shows this, but it was probably too much eating and drinking that killed Don Carlos.

Titles/styles/honors change

Phillip II obtained most of his titles from his parents. He also obtained some other titles later, like King of Portugal.

In Castile he was: King of Castile, Leon, Grenada, Toledo, Seville, Cordoba, Murcia, Jaen, Algarves, Gibraltar, Algeciras, Canary Islands, of the Indias, the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, and Lord of Molina.

In Aragon he was: King of Aragon, Majorca, Menorca, Sardinia and Corsica, Naples, Sicily, Valencia, Navarre, Jerusalem, Margrave of Oristano, Count of Goceano, Count of Barcelona, Count of Roussillon, Count of Cerdanya, Duke of Athens, Duke of Neopatria.

In Portugal he was: King of Portugal, either side of the sea in Africa, Lord of Guinea and of Conquest, Navigation, and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and India, etc.

In England he was: King of England and France (titular) and Ireland.

Hapsburg Titles: Duke of Milan, Imperial vicar of Siena, Archduke of Austria, Princely Count of Habsburg and of Tyrol, Prince of Swabia.

In Burgundy: Lord of the Netherlands, Duke of Lothier, of Brabant, of Limburg, of Luxemburg, of Guelders. Count of Flanders, of Artois, of Hainaut, of Holland, of Zeeland, of Namur, of Zutphen. Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Lord of Frisia, Salins, Mechelen, the cities, towns and lands of Utrecht, Overyssel, GroningenCount Palatine of Burgundy from 10 June 1556; Count of Charolais from 21 September 1558

  • Duke of Burgundy
  • Dominator in Asia, Africa


  • Knight of the Golden Fleece: 1531 – 13 September 1598
  • Grand Master of the Order of the Golden Fleece:[75] 23 October 1555 – 13 September 1598
  • Grand Master of the Order of Calatrava: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598
  • Grand Master of the Order of Alcantara: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598
  • Grand Master of the Order of Santiago: 16 January 1556 – 13 September 1598
  • Grand Master of the Order of Montesa: 8 December 1587 – 13 September 1598

Issue change

Name Born Died Mother
Carlos, Prince of Asturias 8 July 1545 24 July 1568 Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal
Stillborn child April 1555 April 1555 Mary Tudor of Greenwich
Stillborn twins 1556 1556 Mary Tudor of Greenwich
Miscarried twin daughters August 1564 August 1564 Elisabeth of Valois
Isabella Clara Eugenia 12 August 1566 1 December 1633 Elisabeth of Valois
Catalina Micaela of Spain 10 October 1567 6 November 1597 Elisabeth of Valois
Joan 3 October 1568 3 October 1568 Elisabeth of Valois
Ferdinand, Prince of Asturias 4 December 1571 18 October 1578 Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain
Charles Laurence 12 August 1573 30 June 1575 Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain
Diego, Prince of Asturias 15 August 1575 21 November 1582 Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain
Philip III of Spain 14 April 1578 31 March 1621 Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain
Maria 14 February 1580 5 August 1583 Anna of Austria, Queen of Spain

References change

  • Der Traum Philipps des Zweiten (English: The Dream of Philip II). 'Edgar Maas'