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Holy Roman Emperor

emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
Coats of arms of Maximilian II, Holy Roman Emperor from 1564 to 1576. The Emperors used the double-headed eagle as a symbol of their authority

Holy Roman Emperor was the title that was given to the ruler of a loose group of places in mostly central Europe called the Holy Roman Empire. The title of "emperor" was passed from the Romans to the Frankish kingdom when, on 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne, king of the Franks, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

Emperor of the Romans
Former Monarchy
Imperial
Quaterionenadler David de Negker.svg
Quaternion Eagle
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor at age 25, 1792.png
Francis II
First monarch Otto I (with numbering from Charlemagne)
Last monarch Francis II
Style His Imperial Majesty
Appointer Papal appointment
Monarchy started 25 December 800
Monarchy ended 6 August 1806
Current pretender Position abolished

Contents

List of emperorsEdit

This list includes all emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, whether or not they called themselves Holy Roman Emperor. There are some gaps. For example, Henry the Fowler was King of Germany but not Emperor.

Emperors before Otto the GreatEdit

Some historians say the Carolingian Empire was the start of the Holy Roman Empire. Other say the start of the Holy Roman Empire was 962.[1] The rulers who were crowned as Emperors in the West before 962 were as follows:

Carolingian dynastyEdit

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Charles I
(Charlemagne)
2 April 742
-
28 January 814
25 December 800 28 January 814 Founder of the Holy Roman Empire
Louis I 778
-
20 June 840
5 October 816 20 June 840 son of Emperor Charles I
Lothair I 795
-
29 September 855
5 April 823 29 September 855 son of Emperor Louis I
Louis II 825
-
12 August 875
1st Easter 850
2nd 18 May 872
12 August 875 son of Emperor Lothair I
Charles II 13 June 823
-
6 October 877
29 December 875 6 October 877 son of Emperor Louis I
Charles III 13 June 839
-
13 January 888
12 February 881 13 January 888 grandson of Emperor Louis I

Guideschi dynastyEdit

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Guy 855
-
12 December 894
May 891 12 December 894 great-great grandson of Emperor Charles I -
Lambert 880
-
15 October 898
30 April 892 15 October 898 son of Emperor Guy -

Carolingian dynastyEdit

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Arnulph 850
-
8 December 899
22 February 896 8 December 899 nephew of Charles III
and
great-grandson of Emperor Louis I
-

Bosonid dynastyEdit

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Louis III 880
-
28 June 928
22 February 901 21 July 905 grandson of Emperor Louis II -

Unruoching dynastyEdit

Image Name Life Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Coin
Berengar 845
-
7 April 924
December 915 7 April 924 grandson of Emperor Louis I -

There was no emperor in the west between 924 and 962.

Holy Roman EmperorsEdit

Ottonian (Saxon) dynastyEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Seal
1 Otto I 23 November 912
-
7 May 973
- 2 February 962 7 May 973 perhaps great-great-great grandson of Emperor Louis I[source?]
2 Otto II 955
-
7 December 983
961 25 December 967 7 December 983 son of Emperor Otto I
3 Otto III 980
-
23 January 1002
June 983 21 May 996 23 January 1002 son of Emperor Otto II
4 Henry II
[2]
6 May 973
-
13 July 1024
7 June 1002 14 February 1014 13 July 1024 second-cousin of Emperor Otto III
and
great-great-great grandson of Emperor Louis I[source?]

Salian (Frankish) dynastyEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Seal
5 Conrad II
[3]
990
-
4 June 1039
1024 26 March 1027 4 June 1039 great-great-grandson of Emperor Otto I
6 Henry III 29 October 1017
-
5 October 1056
1028 25 December 1046 5 October 1056 son of Emperor Conrad II
7 Henry IV 11 November 1050
-
7 August 1106
1053 31 March 1084 December 1105 son of Emperor Henry III
8 Henry V
[4]
8 November 1086
-
23 May 1125
6 January 1099 13 April 1111 23 May 1125 son of Emperor Henry IV

Supplinburg dynastyEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Seal
9 Lothair III
[5]
9 June 1075
-
4 December 1137
1125 4 June 1133 4 December 1137 perhaps 9th generation descendant of Emperor Otto I
or
11th generation descendant of Emperor Charles II

Staufen (or Hohenstaufen) dynastyEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
10 Frederick I 1122
-
10 June 1190
4 March 1152 18 June 1155 10 June 1190 great-grandson of Emperor Henry IV
11 Henry VI November 1165
-
28 September 1197
?April 1169 14 April 1191 28 September 1197 son of Emperor Frederick I

Welf dynastyEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
12 Otto IV 1175 or 1176
-
19 May 1218
9 June 1198 4 October 1209 1215 great-grandson of Emperor Lothair III

Staufen (or Hohenstaufen) dynastyEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
13 Frederick II 26 December 1194
-
13 December 1250
1196
1215 re-election
22 November 1220 13 December 1250 son of Emperor Henry VI

House of LuxembourgEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
14 Henry VII 1275/1279
-
24 August 1313
1308 29 June 1312 24 August 1313 13th generation descendant of Emperor Louis III

House of WittelsbachEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
15 Louis IV 1 April 1282
-
11 October 1347
October 1314 17 January 1328 11 October 1347 6th generation descendant of Emperor Lothair III and 7th generation descendant of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor

House of LuxembourgEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
16 Charles IV 14 May 1316
-
29 November 1378
11 July 1346/
17 June 1349 re-election
5 April 1355 29 November 1378 grandson of Emperor Henry VII
17 Sigismund 14 February 1368
-
9 December 1437
10 September 1410/
21 July 1411 re-election
31 May 1433 9 December 1437 son of Emperor Charles IV

House of HabsburgEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from an Emperor Arms
18 Frederick III 21 September 1415
-
19 August 1493
1440 19 March 1452 19 August 1493 10th generation descendant of Emperor Lothair III
19 Maximilian I 22 March 1459
-
12 January 1519
16 February 1486 -
[6]
12 January 1519 son of Emperor Frederick III
20 Charles V 24 February 1500
-
21 September 1558
28 June 1519 February 1530 16 January 1556 grandson of Emperor Maximilian I
21 Ferdinand I 10 March 1503
-
25 July 1564
1531 -
[6]
25 July 1564 grandson of Emperor Maximilian I
22 Maximilian II 31 July 1527
-
12 October 1576
November 1562 -
[6]
12 October 1576 son of Emperor Ferdinand I
23 Rudolph II
[7]
18 July 1552
-
20 January 1612
1575 30 June 1575 20 January 1612 son of Emperor Maximilian II
24 Matthias 24 February 1557
-
20 March 1619
1612 23 January 1612 20 March 1619 son of Emperor Maximilian II
25 Ferdinand II 9 July 1578
-
15 February 1637
1618 10 March 1619 15 February 1637 grandson of Emperor Ferdinand I
26 Ferdinand III 13 July 1608
-
2 April 1657
1636 18 November 1637 2 April 1657 son of Emperor Ferdinand II
27 Leopold I 9 June 1640
-
5 May 1705
July 1658 6 March 1657 5 May 1705 son of Emperor Ferdinand III
28 Joseph I 26 July 1678
-
17 April 1711
6 January 1690 1 May 1705 17 April 1711 son of Emperor Leopold I
29 Charles VI 1 October 1685
-
20 October 1740
12 October 1711 22 December 1711 20 October 1740 son of Emperor Leopold I

House of WittelsbachEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from Emperor Arms
30 Charles VII
[6]
6 August 1697
-
20 January 1745
24 January 1742 12 February 1742 20 January 1745 great-great grandson of Emperor Ferdinand II and 12th generation descendant of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor

House of Habsburg-LorraineEdit

# Image Name Life Election Coronation Ceased to be Emperor Descent from an Emperor Arms
31 Francis I 8 December 1708
-
18 August 1765
13 September 1745 -
[6]
18 August 1765 great grandson of Emperor Ferdinand III
32 Joseph II 13 March 1741
-
20 February 1790
after 18 August 1765 19 August 1765 20 February 1790 son of Emperor Francis I
33 Leopold II 5 May 1747
-
1 March 1792
after 20 February 1790 -
[6]
1 March 1792 son of Emperor Francis I
34 Francis II 12 February 1768
-
2 March 1835
after 1 March 1792 4 March 1792 6 August 1806 son of Emperor Leopold II

ReferencesEdit

  1. germanmilitaryhistory.com
  2. enumerated as successor of Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor.
  3. enumerated as successor of Conrad I who was German King 911–918 but not Emperor
  4. Barraclough, Geoffrey (1984). The Origins of Modern Germany. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-30153-2.
  5. enumerated as successor of Lothair II, who was King of Lotharingia 855–869 but not Emperor
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 Emperor-Elect.
  7. enumerated as successor of Rudolph I who was German King 1273–1291.