capital city of the Philippines

Manila (Tagalog: ᜋᜈᜒᜎ) is the capital city of the Philippines. It is one of the largest cities in the Philippines. Manila is on the biggest island of the Philippines, Luzon. Manila is by a bay named Manila Bay. The metropolitan area, called Metro Manila, is much larger. It stretches across a thin strip of land (called an isthmus) to a lake called "Laguna de Bay". Manila has a population of 1.78 million people.

(City of Manila)
Flag of Manila
Pearl of the Orient[1]
Manila, God First
Anthem: Awit ng Maynila
English: Song of Manila
Map of Metro Manila with Manila highlighted
Map of Metro Manila with Manila highlighted
Country Philippines
RegionNational Capital Region (NCR)
Congressional District1st to 6th districts of Manila
Administrative District16 city districts
Established13th century or earlier
Sultanate of Brunei (Rajahnate of Maynila)1500s
Spanish ManilaJune 24, 1571
City CharterJuly 31, 1901
Highly Urbanized CityDecember 22, 1979
 • TypeSangguniang Panlungsod
 • MayorHoney Lacuna (Aksyon/Asenso Manileño)
 • Vice MayorYul Servo (Aksyon/Asenso Manileño)
 • City Representatives
 • City Council
 • Electorate1,133,042 voters (2022)
 • City42.88 km2 (16.56 sq mi)
 • Urban
1,474.82 km2 (569.43 sq mi)
 • Metro
619.57 km2 (239.22 sq mi)
7.0 m (23.0 ft)
 (2020 census)[6]
 • City1,846,513
 • Density41,515/km2 (107,520/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
 • Metro density20,785/km2 (53,830/sq mi)
 • Households
Demonym(s)English: Manileño, Manilan;
Spanish: manilense,[7] manileño(-a)
Filipino: Manileño(-a), Manilenyo(-a), Taga-Maynila
 • Income classspecial city income class
 • Poverty incidence5.71% (2015)[8]
 • HDI0.773[9]high (2018)
 • Revenue₱₱17,922,805,500.00 (2020)
 • GDPUS $182.8 billion
 • Assets₱74,464,757,574.00 (2020)
 • Liabilities₱22,420,747,872.00 (2020)
 • Expenditure₱17,874,675,033.00 (2020)
 • ElectricityMERALCO
 • WaterMaynilad (Majority)
Manila Water (Santa Ana and San Andres)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
+900 – 1-096
IDD:area code+63 (0)2
Climate typeTropical monsoon climate
Native languagesTagalog
CurrencyPhilippine peso (₱)
Flag of the City of Manila
Seal of the City of Manila
Manila and the metropolitan area

Manila, the capital of the Philippines, is a vibrant and culturally rich metropolis located on the eastern shore of Manila Bay. It serves as the political, economic, cultural, and education center of the country. It has many tall buildings and has most of the popular places in the country.

Historical significance


Manila has a long and significant history, dating back to its establishment as a Muslim settlement in the 13th century and later as a Spanish colonial city in 1571[10]

The city played a vital role during the Spanish colonial period as a major trading hub and the capital of the Spanish East Indies[11]

Cultural and architectural heritage


Manila showcases a mix of architectural styles, reflecting its diverse cultural influences. Intramuros, the walled city within Manila, contains well-preserved Spanish colonial structures such as Fort Santiago and San Agustin Church

The city is also home to notable landmarks, including Rizal Park, a national park honoring the country's national hero, Jose Rizal[12]

Economic importance


Manila serves as the economic hub of the Philippines, contributing significantly to the country's GDP. It houses numerous multinational companies, financial institutions, and business districts, including the Makati Central Business District and Bonifacio Global City[13]


  1. "'Pearl of Orient' Stripped of Food; Manila, Before Pearl Harbor, Had Been Prosperous—Its Harbor One, of Best Focus for Two Attacks Osmeña Succeeded Quezon". New York Times. February 5, 1945. Retrieved March 3, 2014. Manila, modernized and elevated to the status of a metropolis by American engineering skill, was before Pearl Harbor a city of 623,000 population, contained in an area of fourteen square miles.
  2. "Cities". Quezon City, Philippines: Department of the Interior and Local Government. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved November 30, 2012.
  3. "An Update on the Earthquake Hazards and Risk Assessment of Greater Metropolitan Manila Area" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. November 14, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  4. "Enhancing Risk Analysis Capacities for Flood, Tropical Cyclone Severe Wind and Earthquake for the Greater Metro Manila Area Component 5 – Earthquake Risk Analysis" (PDF). Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology and Geoscience Australia. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 6, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  5. "Demographia World Urban Areas PDF (March 2013)" (PDF). Demographia. Retrieved November 24, 2013.
  6. "Philippine Population Density (Based on the 2015 Census of Population)". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved November 2, 2017.
  7. This is the original Spanish, even used by José Rizal in El filibusterismo.
  8. "PSA releases the 2015 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Quezon City, Philippines. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
  9. Sub-national HDI. "Area Database – Global Data Lab".
  10. "Manila | Philippines, Luzon, Population, Map, Climate, & Facts | Britannica". 2023-05-24. Retrieved 2023-05-30.
  11. "Publications Received". Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society. 13 (3). 1985. ISSN 0115-0243.
  12. "History of". Archived from the original on 2023-05-30. Retrieved 2023-05-30.
  13. "Makati Web Portal". Retrieved 2023-05-30.

14°35′45″N 120°58′38″E / 14.59583°N 120.97722°E / 14.59583; 120.97722

5. "Manila." Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.,

6. Manila: The Philippines' Proud Capital." Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society, vol. 34, no. 4, 2006, pp. 251-272.

7. "Rizal Park." National Parks Development Committee, Department of Tourism,

8. "Makati Central Business District." Makati City Government,