Commonwealth of the Philippines

1935-1946 republic in Southeast Asia

The Commonwealth of the Philippines (Spanish: Commonwealth de Filipinas,[1][3] Tagalog: Komonwelt ng Pilipinas) was the name of the Philippines from 1935 to 1946 when it was still controlled by the United States. The Philippine Commonwealth had been created by the Tydings-McDuffie Act, which was approved by the U.S. Congress in 1934. When Manuel L. Quezon became president in 1935, he was the first Filipino to head an elected government in the Philippines.

Commonwealth of the Philippines
  • Commonwealth de Filipinas (Spanish)[1][2]
    Komonwelt ng Pilipinas (Tagalog)[3]
Japanese occupation: 1942–45
Anthem: The Philippine Hymn
(from September 5, 1938)[4]
Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia.
Location of the Philippines in Southeast Asia.
StatusAssociated state and protectorate of the United States
Common languages
GovernmentPresidential commonwealth
• 1935–44
Manuel L. Quezon
• 1944–46
Sergio Osmeña
• 1946
Manuel Roxas
High Commissioner 
• 1935–37
Frank Murphy
• 1937–39
Paul V. McNutt
• 1939–42
Francis Bowes Sayre
• 1945–46
Paul V. McNutt
Vice President 
• 1935–44
Sergio Osmeña
• 1946
Elpidio Quirino
Historical eraInterwar, World War II
15 November[6][7][8][9] 1935
4 July 1946
22 October 1946
1939300,000 km2 (120,000 sq mi)
• 1939
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Insular Government
Philippine Executive Commission
Third Philippine Republic
Today part of Philippines
  1. Capital held by enemy forces between 24 December 1941 and 27 February 1945. Temporary capitals were:

The President of the Philippine Commonwealth had strong control of the islands and was guided by a Supreme Court. The National Assembly or law-making part of the government, members mostly come from the Nacionalista Party, was at first only one, but later became two, a lower part and a higher part. In 1937, the government chose Tagalog, the language of Manila, as the national language. Women were allowed to vote, and the economy was strong.

The Philippine Commonwealth government was forced out of the country from 1942–1945, when the Philippines was under Japanese control. In 1946, the Philippine Commonwealth ended when the Third Philippines Republic began.

Names change

The Philippine Commonwealth was also known as the Commonwealth of the Philippines,[10][11] or simply as the Commonwealth. It had official names in Malasariling Pamahalan ng Pilipinas (pɪlɪˈpinɐs) and Mancomunidad Filipina (fɪlɪˈpinɐ). The 1935 constitution specifies Philippines as the country's short form name and uses Philippine Islands only to refer to pre-1935 status and institutions.[12] Under the previous regime, known most formally as the Territory of the Philippine Islands, both terms had official status.[13]

Structure change

The Philippine Commonwealth had its own constitution, which remained effective until 1973,[14] and was self-governing[15] although foreign policy and military affairs would be under the responsibility of the United States, and certain legislation required the approval of the American President.[16]

It featured a very strong President, a single National Assembly,[17][18] and a Supreme Court,[19] all composed entirely of Filipinos, as well as an elected Resident Commissioner to the United States House of Representatives (as Puerto Rico does today). An American High Commissioner and an American Military Advisor,[20] were also present in the government while a Field Marshall was in charge of the Philippine Army.

In 1939-40, after an amendment in the Constitution, an upper and lower Congress,[21] consisting of a Philippine Senate,[21] and of a House of Representatives,[21] was restored replacing the National Assembly.[21]

History change

Start change

March 23, 1935: Constitutional Convention. Seated, left to right: George H. Dern, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Manuel L. Quezo

The pre-1935 U.S. territorial administration, or Insular Government, was headed by a governor general who was appointed by the president of the U.S. In December 1932, the U.S. Congress passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Act (First Philippine Independence Act) with the premise of granting Filipinos independence. Provisions of the bill included reserving several military and naval bases for the United States, as well as imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports.[22][23] It was vetoed by President Herbert Hoover but the American Congress overrode his veto in 1933 and passed the bill.[24] The bill, however, was opposed by the then Philippine Senate President Manuel L. Quezon and was also rejected by the Philippine Senate.[16]

This led to the creation and passing of a new bill known as Tydings-McDuffie Act,[25] or Philippine Independence Act, which allowed the establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines with a 10-year period of peaceful transition to full independence.[22][26][27] The Commonwealth was officially inaugurated on November 15, 1935.[6]

A Constitutional Convention was convened in Manila on July 30, 1934. On February 8, 1935, the 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines was approved by the convention by a vote of 177 to 1. The constitution was approved by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on March 23, 1935 and ratified by popular vote on May 14, 1935.[28][29]

In October 1935, Philippine presidential elections were held. Candidates included former president Emilio Aguinaldo, the Philippine Independent Church leader Gregorio Aglipay, and others. Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña of the Nacionalista Party were proclaimed the winners, winning the seats of president and vice-president, respectively.[22]

The Commonwealth Government was inaugurated on the morning of November 15, 1935, in ceremonies held on the steps of the Old Congress Building in Manila. The event was attended by a crowd of around 300,000 people.[6]

Before World War II change

The new government embarked on ambitious nation-building policies in preparation for economic and political independence.[22] These included national defense (such as the National Defense Act of 1935, which organized a conscription for service in the country), greater control over the economy, the perfection of democratic institutions, reforms in education, improvement of transport, the promotion of local capital, industrialization, and the colonization of Mindanao.

However, uncertainties, especially in the diplomatic and military situation in Southeast Asia, in the level of U.S. commitment to the future Republic of the Philippines, and in the economy due to the Great Depression, proved to be major problems. The situation was further complicated by the presence of agrarian unrest, and of power struggles between Osmeña and Quezon,[22] especially after Quezon was permitted to be re-elected after one six-year term.

A proper evaluation of the policies' effectiveness or failure is difficult due to Japanese invasion and occupation during World War II.

World War II change

Japan launched a surprise attack on the Philippines on December 8, 1941. The Philippine Commonwealth government drafted the Philippine Army into the U.S. Army Forces Far East, which would resist Japanese occupation. Manila was declared an open city to prevent its destruction,[30] and it was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942.[31] Meanwhile, battles against the Japanese continued on the Bataan Peninsula, Corregidor, and Leyte, until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on May 1942.[32]

Manuel L. Quezon visiting Franklin D. Roosevelt in Washington, D.C. while in exile

Quezon and Osmeña were escorted by troops from Manila to Corregidor, and later they left for Australia and then the U.S. There they set up a government in exile,[33] which participated in the Pacific War Council as well as the Declaration by United Nations. During this exile, Quezon became ill with tuberculosis, and later he died of it. Osmeña replaced him as the president.

Meanwhile, the Japanese military organized a new government in the Philippines known as the Second Philippine Republic, which was headed by president José P. Laurel. This government ended up being very unpopular.[34]

The resistance to the Japanese occupation continued in the Philippines. This included the Hukbalahap ("People's Army Against the Japanese"), which consisted of 30,000 armed people and controlled much of Central Luzon.[34] Remnants of the Philippine Army also fought the Japanese through guerrilla warfare, and it was successful, since all but 12 of the 48 provinces were liberated.[34]

General MacArthur and President Osmeña returning to the Philippines

The American General Douglas MacArthur's army landed on Leyte on 20 October 1944, and they were all welcomed as liberators,[22] along with Philippine Commonwealth troops when other amphibious landings soon followed. Fighting continued in remote corners of the Philippines, until Japan's surrender in August 1945, which was signed on 2 September in Tokyo Bay. Estimates for Filipino casualties reached one million, and Manila was extensively damaged when certain Japanese forces refused to vacate the city (against their orders from the Japanese High Command).[34]

After the War in the Philippines, the Philippine Commonwealth was restored, and a one-year transitional period in preparation for independence began. Elections followed in April 1946 with Manuel Roxas winning as the first president of the independent Republic of the Philippines and Elpidio Quirino winning as vice-president. In spite of the years of Japanese occupation, the Philippines became independent exactly as scheduled a decade before, on July 4, 1946.

Independence change

The Commonwealth ended when the U.S. recognized Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, as scheduled.[20][35] However, the economy remained dependent to the U.S.[36] This was due to the Bell Trade Act, otherwise known as the Philippine Trade Act, which was a precondition for receiving war rehabilitation grants from the United States.[37]

Policies change

Uprisings and agrarian reform change

At the time, tenant farmers held grievances often rooted to debt caused by the sharecropping system, as well as by the dramatic increase in population, which added economic pressure to the tenant farmers' families.[38] As a result, an agrarian reform program was initiated by the Commonwealth. However, success of the program was hampered by ongoing clashes between tenants and landowners.

An example of these clashes includes one initiated by Benigno Ramos through his Sakdalista movement,[39] which advocated tax reductions, land reforms, the breakup of the large estates or haciendas, and the severing of American ties. The uprising, which occurred in Central Luzon in May 1935, claimed about a hundred lives.

National language change

Due to the diverse number of Philippine languages, a program for the "development and adoption of a common national language based on the existing native dialects" was drafted in the 1935 Philippine constitution.[40] The Commonwealth created a Surian ng Wikang Pambansa (National Language Institute), which was composed of Quezon and six other members from various ethnic groups. A deliberation was held, and the Tagalog[40] (due to its extensive literary tradition) was selected as the basis for the "national language" to be called "Philipino".

In 1940, the Commonwealth authorized the creation of a dictionary and grammar book for the language. On the same year, Commonwealth Act 570 was passed, allowing Pilipino to become an official language upon independence.[40]

Economy change

The economy of the Commonwealth was mostly based on farming, as agriculture-based. Farmers grew abaca, coconuts and coconut oil, sugar, and timber trees.[41] Other foreign income came from money spent at the American army, navy, and air bases in the Philippines, such as the naval base at Subic Bay and Clark Air Base. The economy was good until World War II stopped growth.[41]

Demographics change

In 1941, the estimated population of the Philippines reached 17,000,000 while Manila's population was 684,000. The number of Chinese people rose to 117,000. There were also 30,000 Japanese people, with 20,000 living in Davao, and 9,000 U.S.-Mexicans. English was spoken by 27% of the population. Spanish was spoken by only 3%.

The following is the estimated number of speakers of the dominant languages:[40]

  • Cebuano: 4,620,685
  • Tagalog: 3,068,565
  • Ilocano: 2,353,518
  • Hiligaynon: 1,951,005
  • Waray-Waray: 920,009
  • Kapampangan: 621,455
  • Pangasinan: 573,752

List of presidents change

Color Legend

The colors indicate the political party or party groups of each President at Election Day.

# President Took office Left office Party Vice President Term
1 Manuel L. Quezon November 15, 1935 August 1, 19441 Nacionalista Sergio Osmeña 1
2 Sergio Osmeña August 1, 1944 May 28, 1946 Nacionalista vacant
3 Manuel Roxas May 28, 1946 July 4, 1946² Liberal Elpidio Quirino 3

1 Died of tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York.
² End of Commonwealth government, independent Republic began.

Notes change

  1. 1.0 1.1 "Official Ballot". Presidential Museum and Library. Retrieved 2017-07-12. Officials of the Commonwealth of the Philippines – Funcionarios del Commonwealth de Filipinas
  2. Article XIV, Section 10, of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of the Philippines which reads "[t]his Constitution shall be officially promulgated in English and Spanish, but in case of conflict the English text shall prevail."
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Constitutional Law". Philconsa Yearbook. Philippine Constitution Association. 1965. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
    "Balangkas at Layunin ng Pamahalaang Komonwelt". Bureau of Elementry Education. Department of Education. 2010. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
  4. Wikisource:Commonwealth Act No. 382.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Mair, Christian (2003). The politics of English as a world language: new horizons in postcolonial cultural studies. NL: Rodopi. pp. 479–82. ISBN 978-90-420-0876-2. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 497 pp.
    Roger M. Thompson (1 January 2003). Filipino English and Taglish: Language Switching from Multiple Perspectives. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 27–29. ISBN 90-272-4891-5.
    Christian Mair (1 January 2003). The Politics of English as a World Language: New Horizons in Postcolonial Cultural Studies. Rodopi. p. 480. ISBN 90-420-0876-8.
    Antonio L. Rappa; Lionel Wee Hock An (23 February 2006). Language Policy and Modernity in Southeast Asia: Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-4020-4510-3.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Timeline 1930–1939, PH: St. Scholastica's College, archived from the original on 2009-04-05, retrieved 2011-06-02.
  7. Gin Ooi 2004, p. 387.
  8. Zaide 1994, p. 319.
  9. Roosevelt, Franklin D (November 14, 1935), "Proclamation 2148 on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of the Philippines", The American Presidency Project, the Commonwealth Road, consecrated on October 23, 1937, Santa Barbara: University of California, This Proclamation shall be effective upon its promulgation at Manila, Philippine Islands, on November 15, 1935, by the Secretary of War of the United States of America, who is hereby designated as my representative for that purpose.
  10. A Decade of American Foreign Policy 1941-1949 Interim Meeting of Foreign Ministers, Moscow. Retrieved September 30, 2009.
  11. The Philippine Commonwealth. November 16, 1935, Saturday. The New York Times. Retrieved on October 1, 2009.
  12. "[1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines]"
  13. See for example, the Jones Law Archived 2009-02-26 at the Wayback Machine of 1916, which uses "Philippines" and "Philippine Islands" interchangeably.
  14. "Constitutions of the Philippines". The ChanRobles Group. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  15. "Text of the 1935 Constitution". The ChanRobles Group. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Dolan 1991 "Commonwealth Politics, 1935-41"
  17. Agoncillo 2001
  18. Hayden 1942
  19. "The Yamashita Standard". PBS. Retrieved 2007-02-12.
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Philippine History". DLSU-Manila. Archived from the original on 2006-08-22. Retrieved 2007-02-11.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 21.3 "A History of Plebiscites in the Philippines". Arab News. Retrieved 2007-02-12.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 22.4 22.5 "Philippines, The period of U.S. influence". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  23. "Hare-Hawes-Cutting-Act". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  24. Agoncillo 1970, pp. 345–346
  25. Officially, the Philippine Independence Act; Public Law 73-127; approved on March 24, 1934.
  26. "Tydings-McDuffie Act". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  27. "Text of the Tydings-McDuffie Act". The ChanRobles Group. Retrieved 2007-02-10.
  28. "1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines". Archived from the original on 2009-05-22. Retrieved 2011-06-02.
  29. Zaide 1994, pp. 317–318
  30. Agoncillo 1970, p. 390
  31. Agoncillo 1970, p. 392
  32. Lacsamana 1990, p. 168
  33. Agoncillo 1970, p. 415
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 34.3 Dolan 1991
  35. Weir
  36. Dolan 1991
  37. "Balitang Beterano: Facts about Philippine Independence". Philippine Headline News Online. Archived from the original on 2012-06-09. Retrieved 2007-02-11.
  38. "Philippine history - American Colony and Philippine Commonwealth (1901-1941)". Windows on Asia. Archived from the original on 2007-10-10. Retrieved 2007-02-11.
  39. Philippine Almanac 1986, p. 140
  40. 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 Philippine Almanac 1986, p. 338
  41. 41.0 41.1 "American Colony and Philippine Commonwealth (1901-1941)". Filipinas Heritage Library. Archived from the original on 2007-01-29. Retrieved 2007-02-12.

References change

Other websites change