Emilio Aguinaldo

President of the Philippines from 1899 to 1902

Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy QSC CCLH[d] (Spanish pronunciation: [eˈmi.ljo a.ɣiˈnal.do]: March 22, 1869 – February 6, 1964) was a Philippine nationalist. He was a leader of the Katipunan, a Philippine independence movement organization. He was President of the Philippine revolutionary government from 1897 to 1901.


Emilio Aguinaldo

Aguinaldo in 1919
1st President of the Philippines[2]
In office
January 23, 1899[a] – March 23, 1901[b]
Prime Minister
Preceded byPosition established
Diego de los Ríos (as Governor-General of the Philippines)
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Officially Manuel L. Quezon (as President of the Philippine Commonwealth in 1935)
Unofficially Miguel Malvar (as President of the First Philippine Republic)
President of the Revolutionary Government
In office
June 23, 1898 – January 22, 1899
Prime Minister
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
(Revolutionary government superseded by the First Philippine Republic)
Dictator of the Philippines
In office
May 24, 1898 – June 23, 1898
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
(Dictatorial government replaced by a revolutionary government with Aguinaldo assuming the title president)
President of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato
In office
November 2, 1897 – December 14, 1897
Vice PresidentMariano Trias
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
President of the Tejeros Revolutionary Government
In office
March 22, 1897 – November 1, 1897
Vice PresidentMariano Trias
Preceded byPosition established (Unofficially held by Andrés Bonifacio as leader of the Katipunan)
Succeeded byPosition abolished
(Tejeros government superseded by the Republic of Biak-na-Bato)
Personal details
Born(1869-03-22)March 22, 1869[c]
Kawit, Cavite, Captaincy General of the Philippines, Spain
DiedFebruary 6, 1964(1964-02-06) (aged 94)
Quezon City, Philippines
Resting placeEmilio F. Aguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite
Political partySee footnote[infobox 1]
Spouse(s)
Hilaria del Rosario
(m. 1896; died 1921)

María Agoncillo
(m. 1930; died 1963)
Children5 (see below)
Alma materColegio de San Juan de Letran
ProfessionPolitician
Military leader
Awards
Philippine Legion of Honor

Quezon Service Cross
ReligionRoman Catholicism, later
Philippine Independent Church
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s)"Kapitan Miong"
"Heneral Miong"
"Ka Miong"
"El Caudillo"
"Magdalo"
"Hermano Colon"
Allegiance First Philippine Republic
Republic of Biak-na-Bato
Katipunan (Magdalo)
Branch/servicePhilippine Revolutionary Army
Years of service1897–1901
Rank Minister/Field marshal Generalissimo
Battles/wars
See battles

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Coat of arms of a the President of the Philippines
Footnotes:
  1. Aguinaldo ran for president in 1935 under the ticket of the National Socialist Party,[10] but in opening, his campaign he disavowed association with any political party.[11]
Aguinaldo
Aguinaldo and Manuel Quezon, 1935

Early life and career

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Aguinaldo was born in Kawit, Cavite belonging to a very political family. His father, for example, was gobernadorcillo and so was his older brother, Crisopulo.[12]

Because of political influence within the family, Aguinaldo would later pursue to become cabeza de barangay in his hometown of Kawit. He then became Capitan Municipal.[12]

The Katipunan and Magdalo

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He joined the Katipunan in 1895 during his service as Capitan Municipal of Kawit.

After the start of the revolution in Cavite, two revolutionary governments became very influential inside the region. These are the Magdalo leadership and the Magdiwang leadership. The Magdalo leadership was under the guidance of Baldomero Aguinaldo, Aguinaldo's cousin.[13]

Because the two governments dislike each other, Andres Bonifacio, the leader of Katipunan, wanted them to become close friends. During the Tejeros Convention, a meeting was held to unite two governments. An election was also held so that they will have a president for the new revolutionary government. After the election, Emilio won to become the new leader but was disliked by Andres Bonifacio. According to Daniel Tirona, Aguinaldo was the right leader for the new government because he graduated as a lawyer unlike Bonifacio.[13]

References

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  1. "Emilio Aguinaldo". Presidential Museum and Library. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012.
  2. "Emilio Aguinaldo". Malacaňan Palace Presidential Museum and Library. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012.
  3. "First Philippine President Emilio F. Aguinaldo 46th Death Anniversary". Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation. February 5, 2011.[permanent dead link]
  4. "Emilio F. Aguinaldo (1869–1964)" (PDF). nhi.gov.ph. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 4, 2011.
  5. Dyal, Donald H; Carpenter, Brian B & Thomas, Mark A (1996). Historical Dictionary of the Spanish American War (Digital library). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-313-28852-4.
  6. Ooi, Keat Gin (2004). OOI, Keat Gin (ed.). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor (3 vols. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 129. ISBN 978-1576077702. OCLC 646857823. Archived from the original on 2016-08-08. Retrieved 2020-09-27.
  7. The year of birth on his death certificate was incorrectly typed as 1809.
    "Philippines, Civil Registration (Local), 1888–1983," index and images, FamilySearch (accessed May 2, 2014), Metropolitan Manila > Quezon City > Death certificates > 1964; citing National Census and Statistics Office, Manila.
  8. "Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo (1869–1964)". aboutph.com. Archived from the original on May 10, 2010.
  9. Turot, Henri (1900). Les hommes de révolution Aguinaldo et les Philippins [Emilio Aguinaldo, first Filipino president, 1898–1901] (in French). préface par Jean Jaures; translated by Mitchell Abidor. Paris: Librairie Léopold Cerf. ISBN 978-1146599917. OCLC 838009722.
  10. "Alternative Parties in the Philippines: National Socialist". history-ph.blogspot.com.
  11. "Aguinaldo opens campaign, June 8, 1935". The Philippines Free Press. 8 June 1935. Retrieved 8 March 2014. I do not have any political party behind me, my party is composed of the humble sons of the people, flattered before elections and forgotten after triumph."
  12. 12.0 12.1 Ardes, A. B. (2003). Talambuhay ng mga Bayani. Sta. Cruz, Manila, Philippines: Juneecon Enterprises. p. 10.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Mactal, Dr. Ronaldo (2013). Historia: Batayang Aklat sa Araling Panlipunan. Quezon City, Philippines: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. pp. 202–203. ISBN 978-971-06-3272-5.
  1. January 23, 1899 was the date of Aguinaldo's inauguration as President under the First Philippine Republic of the Malolos Constitution. He had held positions as President of the Revolutionary Government from March 22, 1897 to November 2, 1897, President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic from November 2, 1897 to December 20, 1897, Head of a Dictatorial Government from May 24, 1898 to June 23, 1898, and President of another Revolutionary Government from June 23, 1898 to January 22, 1899.[1]
  2. March 23, 1901 was the date of Aguinaldo's capture by American forces.[3]
  3. The exact date of Aguinaldo's birthdate was March 22, 1869. It can be seen in National Historical Institute's marker in Aguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite.[4][5][6][7] Some sources give other dates.[8][9]
  4. In the Philippine "Declaration of Independence" his maternal family name is given as Fami.

Other websites

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