Manuel Roxas

President of the Philippines from 1946 to 1948

Manuel Acuna Roxas (January 1, 1892April 15, 1948) was a Filipino politician. He was the President of the Philippine Commonwealth (1946) and the first President of the Third Philippine Republic (1946 - 1948). He was a Minister of the Philippine Commonwealth, Secretary of Finance (1938 – 1941) and Executive Secretary of Third Philippine Republic (1942). The Philippine Commonwealth was abolished after he was elected as President of the Third Philippine Republic.


Manuel A. Roxas
5th President of the Philippines
(1st President of the Third Philippine Republic)
In office
May 28, 1946 – April 15, 1948
Vice PresidentElpidio Quirino
Preceded bySergio Osmeña
Succeeded byElpidio Quirino
2nd President of the Senate of the Philippines
In office
July 9, 1945 – May 25, 1946
PresidentSergio Osmeña
Preceded byManuel L. Quezon
Succeeded byJosé Avelino
Senator of the Philippines
In office
July 9, 1945 – May 25, 1946
Secretary of Finance
In office
August 21, 1941 – December 29, 1941
PresidentManuel L. Quezon
Preceded byAntonio de las Alas
Succeeded bySerafin Marabut
2nd Speaker of the Philippine House of Representatives
In office
1922–1933
Preceded bySergio Osmeña
Succeeded byQuintin Paredes
Member of the Philippine House of Representatives from Capiz' 1st District
In office
1921–1938
Preceded byAntonio Habana
Succeeded byRamon A. Arnaldo
Governor of Capiz
In office
1919–1921
Personal details
Born
Manuel Roxas y Acuña

(1892-01-01)January 1, 1892
Capiz (now Roxas City), Capiz Province, Captaincy General of the Philippines
DiedApril 15, 1948(1948-04-15) (aged 56)
Clark Air Base, Philippines
Cause of deathHeart attack
Resting placeManila North Cemetery, Santa Cruz, Manila, Philippines
Political partyLiberal
Other political
affiliations
Nacionalista (before 1945)
Spouse(s)
Trinidad de Leon (m. 1921)
ChildrenGerardo Manuel Roxas
Ruby Róxas
Alma materUniversity of Manila
University of the Philippines College of Law
ProfessionLawyer, Soldier
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s)Manuel
Allegiance Philippines
Branch/servicePhilippine Commonwealth Army
Years of service1941–1945
Battles/warsWorld War II
* Japanese Occupation of the Philippines (1942 – 1945)
* Philippines Campaign (1944 – 1945)

Early life and career

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Roxas was born in January 1892. After studying as a lawyer at the University of the Philippines, he started his career as a secretary to Judge Cayetano Arellano. He began his political career as councilor at Capiz, later on becoming governor in the province. He also became a speaker at congress. During this time, Roxas became co-chairman of the OsRox mission together with Sergio Osmeña and achieved the Hare Hawes Cutting Independence Act of 1933.[1] This act promised to grant Philippine independence after 10 years but because of threats on imposed tariffs, especially in agriculture, it was highly debated on American and Filipino congress. In the end, it was decided that Philippine independence is only possible if the Philippines accept to keep U.S. military bases, a decision rejected by the Philippine Congress.

Presidency

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Because of World War II, the Philippines had a difficult time rehabilitating its economy. After he was elected president, Roxas established the Rehabilitation Finance Corporation, which helped many Filipinos who lost their homes, and created the Central Bank of the Philippines, which funded the lack of food supply in the country. He also requested help from the United States under the Philippine Rehabilitation Act and the Tydings Rehabilitation Act. This was used in turn to fix damaged roads, bridges, and buildings.[1]

In consequence for receiving rehabilitation funds from the U.S., Roxas was forced to accept the preconditioned Philippine Trade Act or Bell Trade Act of 1946. He was also forced to sign the Military Bases Agreement which proposed to keep 23 military bases of the United States under 99 years inside the country.[1]

Despite his efforts of rehabilitation, the Roxas administration was known for its corruption, rise of unemployment,[1] and failure of land policies that led to the outbreak of the Hukbalahap rebellion.[2]

His presidency ended when he died on April 15,1948 while delivering a speech at the Clark Air Force Base because of a heart attack. His vice president, Elpidio Quirino, became president.[3]

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Mactal, Dr. Rolando (2013). Historia: Batayang Aklat sa Araling Panlipunan. Quezon Avenue, Quezon City, Philippines: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. pp. 335–339. ISBN 978-971-06-3272-5.
  2. "Manuel Roxas | president of Philippines | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2023-01-08.
  3. Zafra, Nicolas (1972). Maikling Kasaysayan ng Pilipinas. Quezon City, Philippines: Alemar-Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. pp. 174–175.

Other websites

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