Noble title with several historical meanings

Sultan is a name for Islamic rulers. There is no specific word for a sultan's wife.

Ottoman Turkish Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent

The word sultan was from Arabic language. It means "strength", "authority", or "rulership". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain Muslim rulers who claimed full sovereignty. They did not have to take orders from any higher monarch, without claiming the overall caliphate.

The dynasty and lands ruled by the Sultan is called a sultanate. During the 20th century several Sultans changed their title to "Malik" which means "king".