sovereign state in South Asia

Nepal (Nepali: नेपाल) is a country in South Asia bordering the Republic of India and the People's Republic of China. Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world, is found there, as well as the Himalaya Mountains.[15] 12 of the world's highest mountain peaks are in Nepal.[16] It is also the birthplace of Buddha.[17] It has recently become a secular country, but before it was the only Hindu kingdom in the world. Nepal is a very important pilgrimage place for both Hindus and Buddhists. The population of Nepal in 2007 was almost 29 million people.[18][19]Nepali is the official language, and there are many other regional languages. English and Hindi are widely understood. The capital city of Nepal is Kathmandu which has a population of over 1.4 million people. The second largest city is Pokhara. Pokhara is a major tourist attraction of Nepal which is rich in natural beauty. Pokhara includes many lakes, Phewa Tal is one of them.

Democratic Republic of Nepal

  • लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल (Nepali)
  • Loktāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl
Motto: "Janani Janmabhumishcha Swargadapi Gariyasi" (Sanskrit)
"Mother and motherland are greater than heaven"
Anthem: "Sayaun Thunga Phulka"
"Made of Hundreds of Flowers"
and largest city
28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167°N 84.250°E / 28.167; 84.250Coordinates: 28°10′N 84°15′E / 28.167°N 84.250°E / 28.167; 84.250
Official languagesNepali[2]
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Nepali, Nepalese
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic
• President
Bidhya Devi Bhandari[4]
Nanda Bahadur Pun
Sher Bahadur Deuba[4]
Agni Prasad Sapkota[5]
Cholendra Shumsher JB Rana[6]
LegislatureNational Assembly
25 September 768[7]
4 March 1816
21 December 1923
28 May 1990
20 September 1989
• Total
324,535 km2 (125,304 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
• 2011 census
• Density
180/km2 (466.2/sq mi) (50th)
GDP (PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$769,926 billion (36th)
• Per capita
Increase $8,058[11] (129th)
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$260,294 billion (48st)
• Per capita
Increase $2,716[11] (130th)
Gini (2010)37.6[12]
HDI (2019)Increase 0.690[13]
medium · 117th
CurrencyNepalese rupee (Rs, रू) (NPR)
Time zoneUTC+05:45 (Nepal Standard Time)
DST not observed
Mains electricity230 V–50 Hz[14]
Driving sideleft
Calling code+977
ISO 3166 codeNP


'Chörtens galore in Tangye, Mustang

Nepal is a landlocked country, which means it is not next to any ocean, and it is surrounded by India and China. Mount Everest is on the border Nepal shares with China. Nepal is a little smaller than Illinois and Bangladesh, but a little bigger than Kyrgyzstan. It also has the second-highest average elevation in the world at (10,715 ft),[20] only behind Bhutan.


Nepal used to be an agricultural country until 1950. Since 1951 it entered the modern era and has made progress. Agriculture, however is still a major economic activity, employing 80% of the population and providing 37% of GDP. Only about 20% of the total area is cultivable; another 33% is forested; most of the rest is mountainous. Rice and wheat are the main food crops. The lowland Terai region produces an agricultural surplus, part of which supplies the food-deficient hill areas.

China is the 2nd largest exporter to Nepal, but India is the largest buyer of Nepal's goods, China's imports from Nepal are zero, thus burdening Nepal's monetary stability and monetary balance. The yearly monsoon rain, or lack of it, strongly influences economic growth. From 1996 to 1999, real GDP growth averaged less than 4%. The growth rate recovered in 1999, rising to 6% before slipping slightly in 2001 to 5.5%.Nepal has 1/3 of its trade with India.


Indo-Aryan Pahadi (hilly) women of Khas group in Hindu outfit
Tibeto-Burman women of Tamang caste in rural outfit

The people of Nepal belong to two main groups; Indo-Aryan group and Tibeto-Burman group. Indo-Aryans are mostly Hindus and they celebrate Hindu festivals like Dashain, Tihar, Teej, Maghe Sankranti, Krishna Janmastami, Holi, Janai Purnima, Matatirtha Aunsi, Chhath, etc. Tibeto-Burmans are Buddhist and they celebrate Lhosar, Buddha Jayanti, etc.[21]


Students carrying the national flag of Nepal

Modern education in Nepal began with the opening of the first school in 1853. This school was only for the members of the ruling families and their courtiers. Schooling for the general people began only after 1951 when a popular movement ended the autocratic Rana family regime and started a democratic system. In the past 50 years, there has been a big expansion of education facilities in the country. As a result, adult literacy (age 15+) of the country was reported to be 48.2% (female: 34.6%, male: 62.2%) in the Population Census, 2001, up from about 5% in 1952–54. Beginning from about 300 schools and two colleges with about 10,000 students in 1951, there now are 26,000 schools (including higher secondary), 415 colleges, five universities, and two academies of higher studies. Altogether 5.5 million students are enrolled in those schools and colleges who are served by more than 150,000 teachers. Despite such examples of success, there are problems and challenges. Education management, quality, relevance, and access are some of the critical issues of education in Nepal. Societal disparities based on gender, ethnicity, location, economic class, etc. are yet to be rid of completely. Resource crunch has always been a problem in education. These problems have made the goal of education for all a challenge for the country.

Administrative subdivisionsEdit

Administrative subdivisions of Nepal

Nepal has seven provinces. Each province has 8 to 14 districts. The districts have local units called municipalities.


The official calendar of Nepal is the Vikram Samvat, which is a Hindu calendar. Their new year begins in Baishakh, which is around mid-April. Nepal has 36 public holidays in the year. This makes Nepal the country with the most public holidays.[22]

The national cuisine of Nepal is Dhindo and Gundruk. Dhindo is a type of dough that is served very hot. Gundruk is a dish with fermented green vegetables.

Association football is the most popular sport in Nepal. The Nepal national football team plays at Dasarath Rangasala Stadium in Tripureswar, Kathmandu, Nepal.

National symbols of NepalEdit

The national symbols of Nepal, according to the Interim Constitution, are:[23][24]


King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha in 1786 had invaded the Kathmandu Valley and unified Nepal. Before the unification, Nepal was ruled by various Kirats, Lichchavis, Thakuris and Mallas. The history mentioned that Kirats ruled Nepal during the 7th century BC. Though much was not known about Kirats,the Lichchavi dynasty followed the Kirats which lasted from the 2nd to 9th century AD. Nepal was ruled by the Thakuris who were followed by the Mallas for two centuries after The Lichchavis. Nepal was divided into many principalities and small kingdoms in the fifth centuries of Malla rule.

Jang Bahadur Rana the then Prime Minister of Nepal revolted against the royalty in 1844. The famous Kot Massacre took place during this period in which numbers of noblemen were killed. The Rana took absolute power but continued to maintain the Shah family in the palace. The 104 years regime of Ranas came to and end due to their autocratic rules.

It was in November 1950 King Tribhuvan restored democracy overthrowing the Rana regime with large number of Nepalese people support. He restored Shah Regime again in Nepal.After his death King Mahendra had ruled in Nepal from 13 March 1955 to 31 January 1972.

Birendra ruled Nepal from 31 January 1972 –1 June 2001 and he was known as one of the most noble and peaceful king of Nepal. The entire family of King Birendra was massacred in June 2001 popularly Known as Royal Massacre 2001. Prince Dipendra was crowned as King while he was on coma stage, later he died in hospital bed. After the death of Diepndra, Gyanendra Shah late King Birendra’s brother succeeded as the King of Nepal.

King Gyanendra Shah was dethroned in 2006 by a decade long People’s revolution led by communist party of Nepal (Maoist) and several weeks protest by major political parties and established Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal.

NepalPopulation Graph

Related pagesEdit


  1. "Nepal | Facts, Destinations". Retrieved 21 June 2021.
  2. "Nepal | Culture, History, & People". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  3. 3.0 3.1 2011 National Census, p. 4.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "President Bhandari administers oath of office to Oli". The Rising Nepal. 15 February 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.[permanent dead link]
  5. "Newly elected HoR Speaker Agni Sapkota takes oath of office". The Himalayan Times. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 13 February 2020. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  6. "Cholendra Shumsher JB Rana confirmed as Chief Justice". The Himalayan Times. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  7. Subba, Sanghamitra (20 December 2019). "A future written in the stars". Nepali Times. Archived from the original on 31 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  8. The Sugauli Treaty of 1816 rendered moot the degree of independence of Nepal. The sixth point of the treaty directly questions the degree of independence of Nepal. The fact that any differences between Nepal and Sikkim will be "referred to the arbitration of the East India Company" sees Nepal as a semi-independent or a vassal state or tributary of the British empire.
  9. Formal recognition of Nepal as an independent and sovereign state by Great Britain.
  10. 2011 National Census, p. 1.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Cite error: The named reference imf2 was used but no text was provided for refs named (see the help page).
  12. "Gini Index (World Bank Estimate) - Nepal". World Bank. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  13. "Human Development Report 2019". United Nations Development Programme. 2019. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  14. "Voltage, Frequency and Power Factor of Electricity", Electricity Rules, 2050 (1993) (Regulation), 1993, retrieved 17 April 2020 – via Nepal Law Commission
  15. Buskey, Theresa. "II". In Alan Christopherson, M.S. (ed.). History and Geography. LIFEPAC. 804 N. 2nd Ave. E. Rock Rapids: Alpha Omega Publications, Inc. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-58095-157-9. Retrieved 26 January 2019.CS1 maint: location (link)
  16. "Highest mountains in the world". Retrieved 26 January 2019.
  17. "Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha". UNESCO. Retrieved 2 April 2013.
  18. "Nepal | A Unique and Diverse Country in South Asia". Retrieved 2021-06-19.
  19. nations encyclopedia, nepal, 2013,
  20. "Countries With The Highest Average Elevations". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2017-07-21.
  21. "Festivals of Nepal". 9 May 2008.
  22. Jha, Manish (7 October 2016). "Regular breaks". Nepali Times. Retrieved 7 December 2017.
  23. "Final Interim Constitution of Nepal, 2063" (pdf). 2007. p. 2. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  24. "Plants, Animals and Birds of Nepal". Nepal Vista. Retrieved 14 June 2013.