Andorra

sovereign microstate between France and Spain, in Western Europe

Andorra (/ænˈdɒrə/ (About this soundlisten)), officially the Principality of Andorra, is a landlocked sovereign country located in the eastern Pyrenees Mountains of Southern Europe and bordered by Spain and France.[13] There are about 84,000 people living in the country. The capital is Andorra la Vella. It is ruled by a Spanish Bishop and the French President. Andorra's government is a parliamentary democracy.

Principality of Andorra[1]

Principat d'Andorra  (Catalan)a[1]
Motto: Virtus Unita Fortior
"United virtue is stronger"[2]
Anthem: El Gran Carlemany  (Catalan)
"The Great Charlemagne"
Location of  Andorra  (centre of green circle) on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]
Location of  Andorra  (centre of green circle)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
and largest city
Andorra la Vella
42°30′N 1°31′E / 42.500°N 1.517°E / 42.500; 1.517Coordinates: 42°30′N 1°31′E / 42.500°N 1.517°E / 42.500; 1.517
Official languagesCatalan[1]b
Ethnic groups
(2017)
  • 48.8% Andorra Catalans
  • 25.1% Spanish
  • 12% Portuguese
  • 4.4% French
  • 9.7% others
Religion
Roman Catholicism[3][4]
Demonym(s)Andorran
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary semi-elective diarchy
Xavier Espot Zamora
Roser Suñé Pascuet
LegislatureGeneral Council
Independence
• from Aragon
8 September 1278[5][6]
• from the French Empire
1814
2 February 1993
Area
• Total
467.63 km2 (180.55 sq mi) (178th)
• Water (%)
0.26 (121.4 ha)c
Population
• 2020 estimate
Increase 77,543[7] (203rd)
• Density
179.8/km2 (465.7/sq mi) (71st)
GDP (nominal)2018 estimate
• Total
$3.237 billion[8]
• Per capita
$42,035
Gini (2003)27.21d
low
HDI (2019)Increase 0.868[9]
very high · 36th
CurrencyEuro ()e (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+01 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+02 (CEST)
Driving sideright[10]
Calling code+376
ISO 3166 codeAD
Internet TLD.adf
  1. Constitution of Andorra. In Spanish and Portuguese: Principado de Andorra, in French: Principauté d'Andorre.
  2. Spanish, Portuguese and French are spoken by a significant minority
  3. (in French) Girard P & Gomez P (2009), Lacs des Pyrénées: Andorre.[11]
  4. Informe sobre l'estat de la pobresa i la desigualtat al Principal d'Andorra (2003)[12]
  5. Before 1999, the French franc and Spanish peseta; the coins and notes of both currencies, however, remained legal tender until 2002. Small amounts of Andorran diners (divided into 100 centim) were minted after 1982.
  6. Also .cat, shared with Catalan-speaking territories.

Andorra is a rich country mostly because of tourism. There are about 10.2 million visitors each year.[14]

The official language is Catalan, although Spanish, Portuguese, and French are also used.

It is not a member of the European Union. The euro is the money used.

HistoryEdit

It is said that Charles the Great (Charlemagne) gave the Andorran people their country in return for fighting against the Moors.

Before 1095, Andorra did not have any type of military protection. The Lord of Caboet and the Bishop of Urgell decided to rule Andorra together. In 1607 Henry IV of France said the head of the French state and the Bishop of Urgell would be co-princes of Andorra.

Andorra declared war on Imperial Germany during World War I. It did not do any fighting. They stayed against Germany until 1957 because they were not in the Treaty of Versailles.

Andorra doesn't have an Army.[15] France and Spain help to defend Andorra. The country has a police force of 295.

ParishesEdit

Andorra has seven parishes:

GeographyEdit

Andorra is in the Pyrenees mountain range. The highest mountain is Coma Pedrosa.

CitiesEdit

The largest cities in Andorra are:

Ranking Name Population
1 Andorra la Vella 19,319
2 Escaldes-Engordany 14,395
3 Encamp 8,470
4 Sant Julià de Lòria 7,518
5 La Massana 4,987
6 Santa Coloma 2,937
7 Ordino 2,780
8 El Pas de la Casa 2,613
9 Canillo 2,025
10 Arinsal 1,555

For other locations in Andorra, see List of cities in Andorra.

ReligionEdit

The population of Andorra is mostly (90%) Roman Catholic.[16] Their patron saint is Our Lady of Meritxell.

EducationEdit

Children between the ages of 6 and 16 must have full-time education. Education up to secondary level is paid by the government.

The University of Andorra (UdA) is the state public university. It is the only university in Andorra.

Related pagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Constitution of the Principality of Andorra" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 May 2019.
  2. "Andorran Symbols". WorldAtlas.
  3. Religion and Contemporary Politics: A Global Encyclopedia [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. 2019. ISBN 9781440839337.
  4. Temperman, Jeroen (2010). State–Religion Relationships and Human Rights Law: Towards a Right to Religiously Neutral Governance. BRILL. ISBN 9789004181496. ... guarantees the Roman Catholic Church free and public exercise of its activities and the preservation of the relations of special co-operation with the state in accordance with the Andorran tradition. The Constitution recognizes the full legal capacity of the bodies of the Roman Catholic Church which have legal status in accordance with their own rules.
  5. "Història d'Andorra". Cultura.ad (in Catalan). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  6. "Andorra". Enciclopèdia.cat (in Catalan). Retrieved 26 March 2019.
  7. "Population on 31 December". Retrieved 1 April 2020.
  8. Data in GDP from the World Bank
  9. Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier: Human Development and the Anthropocene (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 15 December 2020. pp. 343–346. ISBN 978-92-1-126442-5. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  10. "What side of the road do they drive on in Andorra". Retrieved 19 March 2019.[permanent dead link]
  11. "Andorra en xifres 2007: Situació geogràfica, Departament d'Estadística, Govern d'Andorra" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  12. "Informe sobre l'estat de la pobresa i la desigualtat al Principal d'Andorra (2003)" (PDF). Estadistica.ad. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
  13. "Andorra". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. July 2, 2009. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
  14. Estadistica.ad Archived 2018-04-02 at the Wayback Machine, Departament d'Estadística, Govern d'Andorra. (in Catalan)
  15. "Europe :: Andorra — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
  16. "CIA – The World Fact Book – Andorra".

Other websitesEdit