Nauru

island sovereign state in Oceania

Nauru, (English: /nɑːˈr/ (About this soundlisten) nah-OO-roo) officially the Republic of Nauru, is a sovereign island nation located in the Micronesian South Pacific.[3] Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in the Republic of Kiribati, 300 kilometres (190 mi) due east. Nauru is the world's smallest island nation, covering just 21 square kilometres (8 sq mi), the smallest independent republic, and the only republican state in the world without an official capital. With 10,670 residents, it is the third least-populated country after Vatican City and Tuvalu.

Republic of Nauru

Repubrikin Naoero  (Nauruan)
Coat of arms of Nauru
Coat of arms
Motto: "God's will first"
Anthem: Nauru Bwiema
"Nauru, our homeland"
Location of Nauru
CapitalYaren (de facto)a
0°32′S 166°55′E / 0.533°S 166.917°E / -0.533; 166.917 (Nauru)Coordinates: 0°32′S 166°55′E / 0.533°S 166.917°E / -0.533; 166.917 (Nauru)
Largest cityDenigomodu
Official languagesNauruan
Englishb
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Nauruan
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic under a non-partisan democracy
• President
Lionel Aingimea
Marcus Stephen
LegislatureParliament
Independence
• from UN trusteeship, (from the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand)
31 January 1968
Area
• Total
21 km2 (8.1 sq mi) (193rd)
• Water (%)
0.57
Population
• October 2018 census
11,200[1] (234th)
• Density
480/km2 (1,243.2/sq mi) (25th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$160 million[2] (192nd)
• Per capita
$12,052[2] (94th)
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$114 million[2]
• Per capita
$8,570[2]
CurrencyAustralian dollar (AUD)
Time zoneUTC+12
Driving sideleft
Calling code+674
ISO 3166 codeNR
Internet TLD.nr
  1. Nauru does not have an official capital, but Yaren is the largest settlement and the seat of parliament.
  2. English is not an official language, but it is widely spoken by the majority of the population and it is commonly used in government, legislation and commerce alongside Nauruan. Due to Nauru's history and relationship with Australia, Australian English is the dominant variety.[3][4] And is de facto official.

Nauru is a phosphate rock island, and its primary economic activity since 1907 has been the export of phosphate mined from the island.[5] English and Nauruan are the official languages of Nauru. The current president of Nauru is Lionel Aingimea.

GeographyEdit

 
Aerial view of Nauru

Nauru is a 21 square kilometres (8 sq mi)[3] oval-shaped island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 42 kilometres (26 mi) south of the Equator. The island is surrounded by a coral reef, which is exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles.[4] The presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although channels in the reef allow small boats access to the island.[6] A fertile coastal strip 150 to 300 metres (490 to 980 ft) wide lies inland from the beach.[4]

Coral cliffs surround Nauru's central plateau. The highest point of the plateau, called the Command Ridge, is 71 metres (233 ft) above sea level.[7] The only fertile areas on Nauru are on the narrow coastal belt, where coconut palms flourish. The land surrounding Buada Lagoon supports bananas, pineapples, vegetables, pandanus trees, and indigenous hardwoods such as the tomano tree.[4]

Nauru was one of three great phosphate rock islands in the Pacific Ocean (the others were Banaba (Ocean Island) in Kiribati and Makatea in French Polynesia). The phosphate reserves on Nauru are now almost entirely depleted. Phosphate mining in the central plateau has left a barren terrain of jagged limestone pinnacles up to 15 metres (49 ft) high. Mining has stripped and devastated about 80 per cent of Nauru's land area, and has also affected the surrounding Exclusive Economic Zone; 40 per cent of marine life is estimated to have been killed by silt and phosphate runoff.[4][8]

There are only about 60 recorded vascular plant species native to the island, none of which are endemic. Coconut farming, mining, and introduced species have caused serious disturbance to the native vegetation.[9] There are no native land mammals, but there are native insects, land crabs, and birds, including the endemic Nauru Reed Warbler. The Polynesian rat, cats, dogs, pigs, and chickens have been introduced to Nauru from ships.[10]

There are limited natural fresh water resources on Nauru. Rooftop storage tanks collect rainwater, but the islanders are mostly dependent on three desalination plants housed at Nauru's Utilities Agency. Nauru's climate is hot and very humid year-round because of its proximity to the equator and the ocean. Nauru is hit by monsoon rains between November and February, but does not typically experience cyclones. Annual rainfall is highly variable and is influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, with several significant recorded droughts.[9][11] The temperature on Nauru ranges between 26 °C (79 °F) and 35 °C (95 °F) during the day and between 22 °C (72 °F) and 34 °C (93 °F) at night.[12]

As an island, Nauru is vulnerable to climate and sea level change. Nauru is the seventh most global warming threatened nation due to flooding.[13] At least 80 per cent of the land of Nauru is well elevated, but this area will be uninhabitable until the phosphate mining rehabilitation programme is implemented.[8][14]

Climate data for Yaren District, Nauru
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34
(93)
37
(99)
35
(95)
35
(95)
32
(90)
32
(90)
35
(95)
33
(91)
35
(95)
34
(93)
36
(97)
35
(95)
37
(99)
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
30
(86)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
30
(87)
Average low °C (°F) 25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
Record low °C (°F) 21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
20
(68)
21
(70)
20
(68)
21
(70)
20
(68)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
20
(68)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 280
(11.0)
250
(9.8)
190
(7.5)
190
(7.5)
120
(4.7)
110
(4.3)
150
(5.9)
130
(5.1)
120
(4.7)
100
(3.9)
120
(4.7)
280
(11.0)
2,080
(81.9)
Average precipitation days 16 14 13 11 9 9 12 14 11 10 13 15 152
Source: [1]

Administrative divisionsEdit

Nauru is divided into fourteen administrative districts which are grouped into eight electoral constituencies.[4]

Nr. District Former Name Area
(ha)
Population
(2005)
No. of
villages
Density
persons / ha
1 Aiwo Aiue 100 1,092 8 10.9
2 Anabar Anabar 143 502 15 3.5
3 Anetan Añetañ 100 516 12 5.2
4 Anibare Anybody 314 160 17 0.5
5 Baiti Beidi 123 572 15 4.7
6 Boe Boi 66 795 4 12.0
7 Buada Buada 266 716 14 2.7
8 Denigomodu Denikomotu 118 2,827 17 24.0
9 Ewa Eoa 117 318 12 2.7
10 Ijuw Ijub 112 303 13 2.7
11 Meneng Meneñ 288 1,830 18 6.4
12 Nibok Ennibeck 136 432 11 3.2
13 Uaboe Ueboi 97 335 6 3.5
14 Yaren Moqua 150 820 7 5.5
  Nauru Naoero 2,130 11,218 169 5.3

ReferencesEdit

  1. "National Report on Population ad Housing" (PDF). Nauru Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 "Nauru". The World Factbook. United States Central Intelligence Agency. 2 July 2009.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 "Background Note: Nauru". State Department Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. September 2005.
  5. "Brief Historical Overview". Permanent Mission of the Republic of Nauru to the United Nations. Archived from the original on August 18, 2006.
  6. Thaman, RR; Hassall, DC. "Nauru: National Environmental Management Strategy and National Environmental Action Plan" (PDF). South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. p. 234.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. Jacobson, Gerry; Hill, Peter J; Ghassemi, Fereidoun (1997). "24: Geology and Hydrogeology of Nauru Island". In Vacher, H Leonard; Quinn, Terrence M (eds.). Geology and hydrogeology of carbonate islands. Elsevier. p. 716. ISBN 9780444815200.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: uses editors parameter (link)
  8. 8.0 8.1 Republic of Nauru (1999). "Climate Change – Response" (PDF). First National Communication. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Nauru Department of Economic Development and Environment (2003). "First National Report To the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification" (PDF). UNCCD.
  10. BirdLife International. "Important Bird Areas in Nauru". Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environmental Programme.
  11. Affaire de certaines terres à phosphates à Nauru. International Court of Justice. 2003. pp. 107–109. ISBN 9789210709361.
  12. "Pacific Climate Change Science Program" (PDF). Government of Australia.
  13. Stephen, Marcus (November 2011). "A Sinking Feeling; Why is the president of the tiny Pacific island nation of Nauru so concerned about climate change?". The New York Times Upfront.
  14. "Current and future climate of Nauru" (PDF). Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research.

Other websitesEdit