Kennelly–Heaviside layer

The Kennelly heaviside layer was named after scientists Arthur Edwin Kennelly and Oliver Heavisde. Its existence was shown in 1924 by Edward V. Appleton, an English physicist who received noble price in the year 1947. The Kennelly heaviside layer or E region is essentially a part of the ionosphere consisting of ionised gases ranging 90 to 150 kilometers from the earth surface. The layer is capable of reflecting medium shortwave electromagnetic radiations or the EM radiations whose frequency ranges between 300 kHz to 3MHz.

This layer became a popular means of communication in the late 1920's when AM signals(Amlitude Modulated) were transmitted over long distances which was a great communicating system. This phenomenon was based on the total internal reflection of EM waves.