Mantle (geology)

layer inside a planetary body

A mantle is a layer inside a planetary body that is between the core and the crust of a planetary body. Mantles are made of rock or ices. They are generally the largest layer of the planetary body. All terrestrial planets, a number of asteroids, and some moons have mantles.

Earth's mantle change

The Earth's mantle is a layer of silicate rock between the crust and the outer core. Its mass is 4.01 × 1024 kg. It makes up 67% the mass of the Earth. It has a thickness of 2,900 kilometres (1,800 mi).[1] It makes up about 84% of Earth's volume. The Earth's mantle behaves as a viscous fluid.

Other planetary mantles change

Mercury has a silicate mantle that is approximately 490 km thick. Mercury's mantle makes up 28% of its mass. Venus's silicate mantle is approximately 2800 km thick. Venus's mantle makes up around 70% of its mass. Mars's silicate mantle is approximately 1600 km thick. Mar's mantle makes up 74–88% of its mass.[1]

Moons with mantles change

Jupiter's moons Io, Europa, and Ganymede have silicate mantles. Io's mantle is 1100 km thick. Ganymede's mantle is 1315 km thick. Europa's mantle is 1165 km thick.[1] The silicate mantle of the Moon is approximately 1300–1400 km thick.[2] Titan and Triton each have a mantle made of ice or other solid volatile substances.[3][4]

Asteroids with mantles change

Some of the largest asteroids have mantles.[5] For example, Vesta has a silicate mantle similar in composition to diogenite meteorites.[6]

References change

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Lodders, Katharina. (1998). The planetary scientist's companion. Fegley, Bruce. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-1-4237-5983-6. OCLC 65171709.
  2. Wieczorek, Mark A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Khan, Amir; Pritchard, Matthew E.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Williams, James G.; Hood, Lon L.; Righter, Kevin; Neal, Clive R. (2006-01-01). "The Constitution and Structure of the Lunar Interior". Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry. 60 (1): 221–364. Bibcode:2006RvMG...60..221W. doi:10.2138/rmg.2006.60.3. ISSN 1529-6466.
  3. "Cassini Solstice Mission: Layers of Titan -- Annotated". 2015-09-14. Archived from the original on 2015-09-14. Retrieved 2020-10-29.
  4. "Solar System Exploration". 2015-11-17. Archived from the original on 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2020-10-29.
  5. "Griffith Observatory - Pieces of the Sky - Meteorite Histories". Archived from the original on 2020-02-10. Retrieved 2020-10-29.
  6. Reddy, Vishnu; Nathues, Andreas; Gaffey, Michael J. (2011). "First fragment of Asteroid 4 Vesta's mantle detected". Icarus. 212 (1): 175–179. Bibcode:2011Icar..212..175R. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2010.11.032.