Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 4, 1962) was an American actress, writer, model, singer and filmmaker. Between 1946 and 1962, she made 44 movies. Famous for playing comic "blonde bombshell" characters, she became one of the most popular sex symbols of the 1950s and was emblematic of the era's attitudes towards sexuality. Although she was a top-billed actress for only a decade, her films grossed $200 million by the time of her unexpected death in 1962.
Norma Jeane Mortenson
June 1, 1926
|Died||August 4, 1962 (aged 36)|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Cause of death||Barbiturate overdose|
|Other names||Norma Jeane Baker|
|Occupation||Writer, Filmmaker, actress|
Marilyn Monroe was born as Norma Jeane Mortenson or Norma Jeane Baker, on June 1, 1926 at LAC+USC Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, United States. When she was seven years old, her mother, Gladys (Monroe) Baker Mortenson, was hospitalized after being diagnosed as a paranoid schizophrenic, a severe mental condition. Norma was left in a series of foster homes and the Los Angeles Orphans' Home Society. The constant move from one foster home to another resulted in Norma's "sketchy" educational background.
After Norma's sixteenth birthday, her foster parents had to move from California. To avoid an orphanage or a new foster home, Norma chose to get married. On June 19, 1942, Norma married James Dougherty, but the marriage would all but end when he joined the U.S. Merchant Marines in 1943. Though her difficult childhood and early failed marriage would make Norma Jean a strong and resilient woman, these experiences would also add to her insecurities and flaws—things that would ultimately shape her into a great tragic figure of the twentieth century.
Marilyn Monroe became famous, starring in a number of hit movies during the 1950s and early 1960s. She also became famous for modeling for photographers and singing in her musical movies. One time, she sang "Happy Birthday" to President John F. Kennedy. It turned out to be one of her last appearances.
The 16-year-old Norma Jeane married James Dougherty on June 19, 1942. After the wedding, he joined the navy. At this time, Norma met an army photographer, David Conover. She began a career as a model. She changed her name to Marilyn Monroe. She and Dougherty divorced on September 13, 1946.
Monroe married the baseball star Joe DiMaggio on January 14, 1954. The marriage lasted for nine months. She had met DiMaggio on a blind date, during the filming of the movie Monkey Business in 1952. The marriage was closely followed by the public. DiMaggio retired from baseball, and Marilyn became very famous. DiMaggio was sad that his career as a baseball star was ending, and was jealous of Marilyn for being admired. He spent most of his time watching television and Monroe found it boring. They separated on October 31, 1954. From 1961, they became friends again. DiMaggio said that he gave Marilyn a rose every week for 20 years.
Marilyn married Arthur Miller on June 29, 1956. She converted to Judaism. She had met him during the filming of As Young As You Feel in 1951. She was so happy with him and they tried to have children together. Marilyn had three miscarriages, because of her endometriosis. Miller wrote the screenplay for the movie The Misfits. The filming caused many problems between Marilyn and Arthur and they separated on January 20, 1961.
- Dangerous Years (1947)
- Scudda Hoo! Scudda Hay! (1948)
- Ladies of the Chorus (1948)
- Love Happy (1949)
- A Ticket to Tomahawk (1950)
- The Asphalt Jungle (1950)
- All About Eve (1950)
- The Fireball (1950)
- Right Cross (1951)
- Home Town Story (1951)
- As Young as You Feel (1951)
- Love Nest (1951)
- Let's Make It Legal (1951)
- Clash by Night (1952)
- We're Not Married! (1952)
- Don't Bother to Knock (1952)
- Monkey Business (1952)
- O. Henry's Full House (1952)
- Niagara (1953)
- Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953)
- How to Marry a Millionaire (1953)
- River of No Return (1954)
- There's No Business Like Show Business (1954)
- The Seven Year Itch (1955)
- Bus Stop (1956)
- The Prince and the Showgirl (1957)
- Some Like It Hot (1959)
- Let's Make Love (1960)
- The Misfits (1961)
- Something's Got to Give (1962 - unfinished)
Awards and nominationsEdit
- 1951 Henrietta Awards: The Best Young Box Office Personality
- 1952 Photoplay Award: Fastest Rising Star of 1952
- 1952 Photoplay Award: Special Award
- 1952 Look American Magazine Achievement Award: Most Promising Female Newcomer of 1952
- 1953 Golden Globe Henrietta Award: World Film Favorite Female.
- 1953 Sweetheart of The Month (Playboy)
- 1953 Photoplay Award: Most Popular Female Star
- 1954 Photoplay Award for Best Actress: for Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and How to Marry a Millionaire
- 1956 BAFTA Film Award nomination: Best Foreign Actress for The Seven Year Itch
- 1956 Golden Globe nomination: Best Motion Picture Actress in Comedy or Musical for Bus Stop
- 1958 BAFTA Film Award nomination: Best Foreign Actress for The Prince and the Showgirl
- 1958 David di Donatello Award (Italian): Best Foreign Actress for The Prince and the Showgirl
- 1959 Crystal Star Award (French): Best Foreign Actress for The Prince and the Showgirl
- 1960 Golden Globe, Best Motion Picture Actress in Comedy or Musical for Some Like It Hot
- 1962 Golden Globe, World Film Favorite: Female
- Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame 6104 Hollywood Blvd.
- 1999 she was ranked as the sixth-greatest female star of all time by the American Film Institute in their list AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars.
|Awards and achievements|
for Auntie Mame
| Golden Globe Award for Best Actress - Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
for Some Like It Hot
for The Apartment
- "Marilyn Monroe Biography (1926-1962)". www.filmreference.com.
- Banner, Lois (2012). Marilyn: The Passion and the Paradox. Bloomsbury. ISBN 978-1-4088-3133-5.
- Churchwell, Sarah (2004). The Many Lives of Marilyn Monroe. Granta Books. ISBN 978-0-312-42565-4.
- Rieser, Klaus; Fuchs, Michael; Phillips, Michael (2013). "Thirty Are Better Than One: Marilyn Monroe and the Performance of Americanness". In Rieser, Klaus; Fuchs, Michael; Phillips, Michael (eds.). ConFiguring America: Iconic Figures, Visuality, and the American Identity. Intellect. ISBN 978-1-84150-635-7.
- Handyside, Fiona (August 2010). "Let's Make Love: Whiteness, Cleanliness and Sexuality in the French Reception of Marilyn Monroe" (PDF). European Journal of Cultural Studies. 3 (13): 291–306. doi:10.1177/1367549410363198. hdl:10871/9547. S2CID 146553108.
- Harris, Thomas (1991) . "The Building of Popular Images: Grace Kelly and Marilyn Monroe". In Gledhill, Christine (ed.). Stardom: Industry of Desire. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-05217-7.
- Leaming, Barbara (1998). Marilyn Monroe. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-609-80553-4.
- Meyers, Jeffrey (2010). The Genius and the Goddess: Arthur Miller and Marilyn Monroe. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-03544-9.
- Miracle, Berniece Baker; Miracle, Mona Rae (1994). My Sister Marilyn. Algonquin Books. ISBN 978-0-595-27671-4.
- Monroe, Marilyn (2010). Comment, Bernard (ed.). Fragments: Poems, Intimate Notes, Letters. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 9780374158354.
- Riese, Randall; Hitchens, Neal (1988). The Unabridged Marilyn. Corgi Books. ISBN 978-0-552-99308-1.
- Rollyson, Carl (2014). Marilyn Monroe Day by Day: A Timeline of People, Places and Events. Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 978-1-4422-3079-8.
- Solomon, Matthew (2010). "Reflexivity and Metaperformance: Marilyn Monroe, Jayne Mansfield, and Kim Novak". In Palmer, R. Barton (ed.). Larger Than Life: Movie Stars of the 1950s. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-4766-4.
- Spoto, Donald (2001). Marilyn Monroe: The Biography. Cooper Square Press. ISBN 978-0-8154-1183-3.
- Steinem, Gloria; Barris, George (1987). Marilyn. Victor Gollancz Ltd. ISBN 978-0-575-03945-2.
- Summers, Anthony (1985). Goddess: The Secret Lives of Marilyn Monroe. Victor Gollancz Ltd. ISBN 978-0-575-03641-3.
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