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Martyr

person who suffers persecution and death for advocating, refusing to renounce, and/or refusing to advocate a belief or cause, usually a religious one
The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1883).

A martyr is originally a witness and now means a person who died or was killed because of their faith, for example Saint Stephen. It is often used for people who died for any belief or idea, especially in politics.